نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 . دانشیار جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تهران مرکز
2 ـ کارشناس ارشد جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تهران مرکز
عنوان مقاله [English]
In crisis management, Passive defense is one of the most important strategies. Safety and Security has long been considered in the planning and management of urban settlements. The most important steps in passive defense are integrated urban management, so it means adopting a system and design mechanisms to the approach followed in managing the city. What makes today's urban system very important is guiding management system, the ability of the internal flexibility of having the ability to apply principles and rules of external passive defense and responding to the expectations of the system, using the 'the opportunities enormous for the prevention of event and in other words "crisis management" and other profiles in this regime. Looking at the current political and military paradigm in urban areas seems to be in bed with a comprehensive approach, measures should be considered passive systems defense.
This study, using descriptive and analytical approach utilizes a library and documents, After explaining the principles, objectives and considerations of passive defense and passive defense approach in urban areas, urban integrated management roles (Agents effective integration of urban management in policy and decision making) has been studied in urban passive defense.
Urban management and accurate implementation of the national building regulations, construction, operation buildings, structural and non-structural building performance levels (service functionality, usability endlessly, life safety, collapse threshold), the building safe areas and shelters, buildings and vital key organizations, institutions and critical infrastructure industries and services (centers of decision-making, economic, military, vital centers, telecommunications, etc.), used relentlessly and reload buildings, type of function, comfort and urban structure factor influencing immune defense is. Focus on urban management and urban passive defense will cause the formation of passive defense, passive defense of the urban phenomenon of urban integrated management approach is based upon a dynamic and mobile. Passive defense operations aimed at continuing urban infrastructure needs vital public services and to facilitate the continuation of urban governance through the passive defense plans and reduce the vulnerability of critical facilities and sensitive installations and urban.
Urban management created the urban with specific functions and body structure is tailored to the cultural needs of passive defends. The analysis of urban settlements based on the role of urban management in urban development and deployment of passive defense is in four contexts of the city's urban fabric, urban form and urban land use. Texture or shape and size of the town, and how to combine the smallest ingredients of the city in the resistance against the invasion of the city and other urban disasters can be effective. In the study of the role of city form Based on passive defense is thus a form of open against military threats are less vulnerable and changing them (supplies) in order to deceive the enemy is too much; While compact forms also lack of flexibility, have high vulnerability against military threats due to the accumulation of facilities, activities and population, so that there is no possibility of the rapid depletion of places and leaving the city .On the other hand open areas provides the possibility of temporary housing and further fundraising. In the discussion of city structure, emphasis on the spatial distribution of elements, combining elements and the city’s main function that make up the city structure, have the important role in the vulnerability of the city against different events.
Result and Conclusion
The results show that City managers in the passive defense discussion should further effort in such a way In order to reduce the fatality and property and provide a quick improvement to normal levels in the city whenever it’s necessary. Obviously, in order to be prepared ahead of time, all necessary measures should be predicted. A t the end, suggestions and strategies about passive defense operations are presented based on urban management as follow:
Legislating laws, regulations and adequate protection needed for the passive defense in closets habitations;
Population’s logical development in large cities and industrial-economic activities;
Distribution and balance in the distribution of population centers;
Rural and urban areas’ balanced development;
Cities location in the territory with the purpose of establishing small and medium cities balanced distribution;
Choosing suitable locations for establishing activity centers;
Planning Before tragedy detection to reduce disasters and damages.