نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 استادیار جغرافیا و برنامهریزی شهری، پژوهشگاه علوم انتظامی و مطالعات اجتماعی
2 استادیار گروه جغرافیای دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات تهران، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
Having a short glance on the management of Iran beaches generally, and in specific in Hormozgan shows that there is not any integration of strategies, policies or activity coordination which are the basis of integrated management. Since the organizations, responsible for governing the coastal zone, mainly are going to achieve and implement their own plans and programs, therefore the main common principles, from the integrated management, cannot be considered as the basis of planning and policy making at the moment in the coastal area of province.
There are many beneficiaries and operators at the coastal zone of the province such as, Cultural Heritage Organization, Handicrafts and Tourism Organization, town halls, military institutes, the private sector operators, Ports and Maritime Organization, Fisheries Organization and other organizations who control or work on the coastal zone direct or indirect. Accordingly, there will not a common principle, the principle that has been emphasis by the integrated management. Therefore, the present study is going to find out what are the main factors of inconsistency and non-integration of management at the coastal zone of Hormozgan province.
The integrated management of coastal zone is almost a new issue and has its roots in 1990's. Due to the novelty of the issue, the relevant management approach has not been known completely. However the integrated management of coastal zone has been discussed as a new approach, the relevant concepts and factors should still be found at the macro level of patterns and governing methods. Many concepts and aspects of the integrity have been discussed the point that the main factor of the integrated management includes fragmentation and inconsistency among the policies and rules about the usage of coastal area, inconsistency among the management institutes and organizations, inconsistency among the local programs, inconsistency between the local institutions and regional institutions, also between regional institutions and national institutions, and the lack of participation of the people and the private sectors in management and planning of coastal area. In general, the integrity in management of the land space, including coastal zone, can be concluded at three levels:
- The functional integrated level which means an integrated management and coordinated economic, framework, social and environmental functions. Also, an integrity in policies, programs and the relevant procedures to the existing resources in the coastal area (including the land and water);
- The integrity of management layers which is about the coordination in policy making, planning and their implications; and
- The territorial (special) integrity level which mentions the integrated management of the territory space; the level of integrity is a link between the functional integrity level and management integrity levels, and the integrity can be seen clearly at this level.
The qualitative research method has been used at the present study. To recognize the management system of coastal area of Hormozgan province, which has been influenced by the province management system, also the rules and policies of management and operation of coastal area, the following methods have been used:
1. The content analysis of documents: One of the main goals of the present study is the recognition and analysis of the rules and policies of management, also the operation style of coastal area, and the duties and options of the different organizations and institutions at the national, province and local levels.
2. Questionnaire: To have a better cognition of the existing official-political structure and the province organizations, especially the workgroup and councils, the beneficiary people and non-governmental organizations (including private and public) in management at the macro level, there is a need to find out about the viewpoint of the relevant institutions and responsible people. Therefore, the statistical society is included the logistic workgroup members, environment and sustainable development of the province.
The content analyses of documents, relevant to the coastal area, and the data from the questionnaire show that the problems and issues of coastal area institutional and organizations of Hormozgan province can be divided into four main groups:
1.First, considering the focused system of administration in the country, the problems and inadequacies at the national level, which have been prevalent in the country in governing the problems, especially at the territorial management, it has been extended to Hormozgan,too.
2.Second, the institutional-organizational problems and inadequacies due to the rules and regulations of coastal area, especially the rules and regulations about the duties and responsibilities of coastal areas' institutions and organizations. These kinds of institutional-organizational problems led by weakness and insufficiency of legal aspects of management and operation of coastal area can be studied, especially about the insufficiency of duties and responsibilities of the relevant institutions and the unclear duties and responsibilities and the interference of duties.
3.Third, the problems and weakness led by the lack of clear definition of specific position for the private sector and the non-governmental and public institutions, and the local society in administration in general, and operation and management of Hormozgan province coastal area in particular.
4.The fourth group of organizational-institutional problems relevant to coastal areas, which have been more objective in comparison with the other problems and can be seen in more real form at the area, is the aspects led by political dividing at Hormozgan coastal areas which can be seen in the form of growing down of the country division.
Discussion and Conclusion
Hence, the results from the management of Hormozgan province coastal areas system show that there is not any integrity in strategies and policies and activity coordination and the procedures which are supposed to be the basis of the integrated management. Considering the point that every responsible organization, relevant to coastal area administration, is going to implicate and achieve its own goals and plans, the common aims and fundamentals of the integrated management of coastal area would not be considered as the basis of planning and policy making in the coastal areas' planning. The objective samples of not considering these principles in official programs and regulations in coastal area can be seen in the existence of a significant number of development documents such as, the logistics pattern of Hormozgan province, the logistic pattern of Hormozgan's shoreline, the south regional framework and some other similar patterns and plans which have been planned without any connection and coordination together, and some of them are going to be implemented by the administrative. In addition, the wide range of beneficiaries and operators in coastal regions of the province illustrates the regional beaches have been controlled and operated without a comprehensive program and coordination by some military institutions, Cultural Heritage Organization, Handicraft and Tourism Organization, coastal area municipalities, the private sector operators, Port and Marine Organization, Fisheries Organization and some other organizations, direct or indirect. As a result, the background factor of scattering and non-integrity in the coastal areas of Hormozgan can be concluded in 1) the lack of an independent and comprehensive legal approach to an integrated management of coastal areas, 2) the lack of a particular and independent approach about the management of coastal regions, 3) the lack of division of labor among the relevant organizations and institutions in integrated management of coastal areas, 4) the lack of covering of the whole subjective and spatial aspects of integrated management of coastal areas and 5) the lack of effective and fair support for the whole elements and beneficiaries relevant to integrated management of coastal areas.