نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 استادیار گروه تاریخ دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان
2 استادیار گروه جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان
عنوان مقاله [English]
Geopolitics (a special method) that uncovers and analyzes critical phenomena and defines aggressive or defensive strategies for a territorial boundary in terms of human and natural geography. (Loro and Toval 1961:34) thus it can be said that geopolitics, as government and political groups (knowledge of competition and the expansion of the sphere of influence) to seek and seize power, tools, levers and geographic opportunities which gives them power and the ability to overcome the rival. they compete to capture opportunities and geographic opportunities in location and spaces and try to further expand they influence in geographic area and add then to their activities .on the other hand drive out rivals from disputed spaces. (Hafez nia,1965:17)in this historical and traditional sense geopolitics in traditional and historical conceptions is the power opposition to become landowner and control the territory in which the political force of each confliction side use different representation to achieve their goals. Therefore the issue of historical geopolitics is the study of the place affection on history and civilization fate whose is its discourse is on the new research method in the geographic approach (historical geography) on historical political system. (Bay, 1968:11) in this regard this research tries to process the geopolitical, political, and military functions of this city, it wants to analyze the historical and geography position of Martyropolis city.
Result and Discussion
Martyropolis is a city on the borders of Iran and Byzantine which according to the most historians and researcher was established in the city of Tigrankerta the former Armenia capital founded by Tigran in the 1st century BC (markoat, 1944: 63; shipman, 1964: 68: Diakonf, 1964: 231; Dernarsian, 2537:21; Avdoyan, 2006: 97). When Armenia was divided between Iran and Rome in 387 AD it was the capital of sufen. It was in the midst of great Armenia which Farat and Degle headwater was in the west and east of it (Jones, 2012: 481-507) the ancient regimes built cities in the geopolitical region such as the major point of the border. The construction of this cities brought political and military function.
The border towns and conflict Iran and Byzantine over their domination include the bulk of the relation between these two powers during the Sassanid era, as the center of the confluence of these two powers in the cities of Minor Asia, Syria, Caucasus and Mesopotamia. Ancient regimes started to build cities in the geopolitical regions such as the border point. The construction has brought them political and military functions. Among these cities one can mention is Martyropolis which has been created in Minor Asia, due to the geopolitical significance for the Byzantine state. the Minor Asia peninsula has always been like the bridge between Asia and Europe and has been considered as the east and west confliction ground from the beginning of history .Regarding the geographic location of the Martyropolis city current sylvan in southeastern turkey it should be said that this city stated in the Degleh river headwater in the north (Diyarbakir) and in the southeast of Van lake in the way which connected Armenia to Mesopotamia. As the most historian and researchers said Martyropolis has been built in the place of Tigrankerta (the former capital of Armenia) that was founded by Tigran in the first century BC.
There are many different view about constructor of Martyropolis, for instance individuals like Maya, Farigin, Marosa, Helena, Constantine, Khosro Anoshirvan, Khosro Parviz and some of these sources go further and claimed that Miafarghin is one of the tree cities which made after Noah storm .Byzantine empire created city to prevent or at least hindered the progress of Iranians in Armenia, Mesopotamia, Minor Asia, Syria and then the Roman territories. Therefore it should be said that Miafarghin by its geopolitical position played an important role in Byzantine defense system. As its fortress were strengthened at different time and during the region of roman emperors, such as Arkadios, Second Teodosios, Mastazius and Jostinin to defense Iranian attacks. Regarding the importance of this city it should be acknowledged that the loss of such cities in the ancient time led to a major change in the power balanced in the region; for this reason the Byzantine not willing to lose this cities, and this caused continuing conflicts between them and the Sassanians emperors which little by little reduced the power of both empires.