تبیین نظری تغییر ماهیت مناطق ژئوپلیتیک در رقابت بین قدرت‌‌ها

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران

2 دانشجوی دکتری جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

از آغاز پیدایش ژئوپلیتیک، قدرت و رقابت جهت تسلط بر سرزمین و داشته‌‌های آن مبنای اصلی این دانش قرار گرفته است. بر این اساس، ژئوپلیتیک استعماری نیز که دوره نخست تاریخ ژئوپلیتیک با آن آغاز شده است، با اندیشه استعمارگری جهت تصاحب و تسلط بر مناطق جغرافیایی همراه شده است. رقابت جهت دست‌یابی به مناطق و داشته‌‌های آن تحت تأثیر دو نوع رویکرد قرار گرفته است. بن‌مایه رویکرد نخست بر حقایق جغرافیای طبیعی استوار است و رویکرد دوم مبتنی بر ایدئولوژی‌های برتری‌‌خواهانه است. همچنان ‌که در دوره جنگ سرد نیز رقابت قدرت‌ها جهت سلطه بر مناطق ماهیت ایدئولوژیک پیدا می‌‌کند. قدرت‌‌های رقیب در قالب استراتژی‌هایی همچون سد نفوذ، دومینو، ضد دومینو و غیره، خود را آشکار می‌ساختند؛ سیاست‌‌هایی که زمینه کمتری از حقایق جغرافیایی در آن نمایان بود. بعد از فروپاشی شوروی عصر جدیدی آغاز شد، در این عصر قدرت‌‌های منطقه‌‌ای نیز صاحب موقعیت جدیدی شدند که مناطق و حقایق جغرافیایی اهمیت دوباره‌ای یافت. به این ترتیب، پژوهش کنونی در قالب روش تفسیری- تحلیلی به‌دنبال پاسخ به این پرسش است که مناطق ژئوپلیتیک در رقابت بین قدرت‌‌ها چه ماهیتی را به خود دیده است؟ فرضیه موجود نشان‌گر این است که مناطق ژئوپلیتیک در رقابت بین قدرت‌‌ها  ابتدا ماهیت طبیعی داشت، سپس ماهیت ایدئولوژیک یافت و در دوره کنونی نیز حقایق جغرافیایی مناطق مورد تأکید قرار می‌گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Theoretical Explanation of the Nature of the Geopolitical Regions in Competition of the Powers

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sayed Abbas Ahmadi 1
  • Marjan Badiee Azondahi 1
  • Tahmores Heidari Mosello 2
1 Assistant Professor of Political Geography, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
2 PhD Student of Political Geography, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Intrduction
Geopolitical regions has developed from the nineteenth century onwards. at the present time
the old colonial approaches has lost your application but neocolonial methods to gain power
and competition in the geographic areas and areas has taken the other shape as with the
collapse of the Soviet Union, the geopolitical regions, as well as was developed many other
concepts the human community therefore, the approach of the competition of power in the
areas has taken on a particular geographical basis. in this regard, the present research seeks
to theoretical explanation of the process and the nature of the geopolitical regions in the
powers competition.
Methodology
This research seeks to explain the theoretical changes in the nature of geopolitical regions.
Since the main purpose of the research is to extract and identify the process and change the
nature of geopolitical regions in the competition between powers, from theoretical and
qualitative aspects to explained the issues.
Hence, The current research seeks to answer the question of what trends and nature of
geopolitical regions have been seen in the rivalry between powers?
Findings
According to previous studies are three types of view of geopolitics perception to areas: First
View says that the countries in the every measure taken together (ranging from a global or
regional) are similar to each other (generalization see). Second View, consider zones as
"opposite". In this view a geopolitical region with other regions, differences and is like no
other place (conflict). The third view, is the "comparative" approach. Based on the
comparative approach, geographic areas affect the behavior of countries and form the a level
of separate analysis and regional politics is not such as universal politics.
The nature of the geopolitical regions while the imperialist geopolitics in the early
twentieth century, had emphasized in importance of natural geography in the foreign polic
and global strategy during the Cold War , the geopolitics more was trying the competition
and conflict with the Soviet Union and America very closely the geography and also had to
describe in the complicated Ideology. As Mackinder introduced part of Russian territory as
a land-based Central or geographical a local area, But George Kennan designer America's
foreign policy after the war, known as the "Containment strategy" Soviet, to Russia did not
look at as a simple territory, but it as a "threat" knew that finding is constantly expanding. So
that designers competition and geopolitics experts took over around the world, "Us" or
"them", "free world" against the "the communist and dictator world " were raised geopolitics
issues of West cold war. during the cold war, world different areas the vertical look, from
above and from the charter of the East and West were entered geopolitical calculations, but
in the new era, different regions of the world from the down and from within their areas and
to be more precise Horizontal angle are into the international political relations and
competition between powers. after the cold war almost all the regional powers, positions and
a greater role In the their surrounding areas.
Conclusion
In the field of theorizing on regional studies, have occurred Several changes. In the first
period, areas in terms of geographical units In other words, were defined geo-political and
geographic boundaries. This topic, traditional theorizing axis about the region Then, the areas
were possessed of functional features on the other hand, the name of the in the ancient
traditions had the imposed process and from the top down was managed and defined by the
great powers. as the old, area of Natural Geography derived in the terms of land area, marine
and other , but in the current era, in addition to the old approach is also used the geography
human dimension. accordingly the competition To achieve areas having Has caused these
areas to be defined by both geographical and ideologies approach. As Mackinder theories,
Aspaykmn and Mahan, the natural approach and Ratzel views, Killen and Haushofer have
the thought approach. During the Cold War, also the powers competition for dominate on
areas , finds ideological nature in terms of the influence dam and Domino after the Soviet
collapse, some regional powers also were possess positions and new powers. in this context,
regional powers entered the competition In the areas and searches the significant contribution
for influence In the its surrounding area.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Geopolitics
  • Competition
  • Geopolitical regions