عنوان مقاله [English]
Cities are socio-spatial systems with various natural, economic, social, cultural, political and institutional aspects. Among these, the political and institutional aspects are more important because of the tools and power to control other vital aspects of the city. This is why political relations and their impact in spatial development of the city have always been paid double attention by the geographers. In this connection, urban issues as ideas governing political geography and geopolitics have received good attention too. Political geography, with chiefly an urban approach, studies the role of political decisions and approaches in the emergence and removal of urban problems, mainly in the form of political management of the city. The political geography has focused on political-spatial phenomenon of the city and studies the role of political procedures and decision-makers in urban administration, directing, controlling and shaping of the space and spatial organization of the city. As in geopolitics, the impacts of ultra-city interactions, communications and performances in influencing political power are studied. This, of course, does not mean inattention to the decisive role of urban phenomena and factors on the political power in national and urban level. Geopolitics takes city at the center with a vast capability to affect various territorial aspects. The political role-players have always paid a special attention to city as a tool for more political power. Therefore, urban managers as members of the political role-players in the city, cannot bring about desirable development and city administration without gaining sufficient familiarity with the political geography and geopolitical factors.
This study intends to present a philosophical-conceptual approach toward political geography of the city to provide an appropriate framework for studying the importance and status of city in political geography, geopolitics and its role in development of city administration. This work is the result of descriptive-analytical research based on library studies. The findings show that studying cities based on political geography and geopolitics viewpoints can provide solutions to urban development problems, specially in the Third World Countries. Therefore, in this research work, formation of urban spaces under political structures and decisions and various natural and human factors inside and outside the city has been studied in line with producing political power.