تحلیل اقدامات ژئوپلیتیکی داعش بر اساس مدل مفهومی والرشتاین – تیلور

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

2 دانشجوی دکتری علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

اقدامات ژئوپلیتیکی داعش را می‌توان به عنوان پاسخی به عملکرد اقتصادی-سیاسی کشورهای مرکز نسبت به کشورهای پیرامون در قالب پدیده جهانی شدن و عدم شناسایی فرهنگی-هویتی ملّت‌های پیرامونی از سوی قدرت‌های مرکز دانست. پدیده‌ی "داعش" به عنوان جریانی نوظهور سبب بروز تغییرات عمده‌ی ای در منطقه‌ی خاورمیانه به طور ویژه و در سراسر جهان شده است. اقدامات داعش را می توان در سه حوزه‌ی سرزمین و مرز، جمعیّت و ملّت و دولت و نظام سیاسی تحلیل نمود در این پژوهش به دنبال پاسخ به این سؤال هستیم که از منظر جغرافیای سیاسی، داعش نسبت به پدیده جهانی شدن چه واکنشی از خود نشان داده است؟ فرضیه ما این است که با توجه به اینکه جغرافیای تولّد و رشد جریان داعش مربوط به کشورهای حوزه پیرامونی و استثمار شده به خصوص در خاور میانه است، مطابق نظریه نظام جهانی والرشتاین و سیاست شناسایی تیلور می‌توان گفت داعش، در سه حوزه‌ی سرزمین، جمعیّت و حکومت، در تقابل با نظام جهانی واکنش نشان داده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Geopolitical Analysis of ISIS Based on the Wallerstein-Taylor Conceptual Model

نویسندگان [English]

  • jalil dara 1
  • mohsen khaki 2
1 assistant professor in tarbiat modares university
2 PhD Student of Political Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract     
Introduction
The phenomenon of ISIL as the latest covert of terrorism has expanded into new dimensions of the possibility of spreading brutal violence. This phenomenon is known as a new threat to existing order in three areas of territory, population and state type and making it an unpredictable phenomenon. Regardless of the necessity of designing for a post-conflict encounter with this flow, it should be for the existential reasons of such thinking, it began to face and collide at the same stage of the cause. Because unbridled terrorism, like ISIS, has had an unlimited reaction to its surroundings, which has turned it into a security hurdle, even for countries that are thousands of kilometers from its geographical range. Under these circumstances, it is likely that, by eliminating ISIL from the military and political equations of the world, yet due to lack of attention to the foundations of ISIS, other examples of this would lead to security crises in the world.
Methodology
The method of research in this research has been based on the "historical method" and "descriptive method" due to the historical origins and dimensions of the formation of ISIS and its reaction to the phenomenon of the existing world order. The library method is used to collect data. And descriptive sections have also been analyzed.
Findings
ISIL's geopolitical efforts can be considered as an answer to the political economic performance of Central Asian countries towards marginalized countries, given the colonial and historical exploitation of the centuries and the lack of recognition of the cultural identity of the nations enclosed by the central powers. ISIL's phenomenon as an emerging trend has brought about great changes in the Middle East region, especially around the world. The question of this research is that from a geopolitical point of view, Isis's actions regarding the economic and cultural order - the identity created by the dominant and centralized countries, is analyzed? The findings of this study indicate that the geography of the birth and growth of ISIS is related to peripheral and exploited countries, especially in the Middle East,  According to Wallerstein's theory of the Welshstein system and Taylor's identification policy, it can be said that ISIS is attempting, in the form of violent terrorism, to act as a "legitimate defense" and justify its geopolitical reaction in three areas of land and border, population and nation, and government and system Political among Sunni Muslims and Muslims with Sunni radical tendencies.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • ISIL
  • Geopolitics
  • globalization
  • Wallerstein
  • Talor
  1. Abdollahi, Fatemeh (2015), Representation of the image of the West and its allies in the Islamic world of minds, Journal of Regional Studies, spring - No. 56 [in Persian].
  2. Abdolmalek, Anwar (2005), Arab Political Thought in the Contemporary Period, translation by Ahmad Mousati, Tehran, Mubadal University Press
  3. Agnew, J.( 2002) Making of Political Geography, New York: Oxford University Press.
  4. Alishahi, Abdoreza & Tajik, Hadi & Foruzan, Younos (2017), Investigating the Reasons for the Presence of Da'ish Terrorist-Takfir Group in Afghanistan Based on the Dominique Theory of William Bolit, The International Geopolitics Quarterly, Tehran, 13 th, No 1, Spring 2017[in Persian].
  5. Appadurai, A(1990), Disjuncture and difference in the Global Cultural Economy, in M.Featherst one (ed.) Global Culture: Nationalism, Globalization and Modernity. Sage: London.
  6. Araghchi, Abbas & Jozani Kohan, Shahin (2017), ISIS exploits cyberspace, Foreign Relations Quarterly, Tehran, Spring, No. 33, [in Persian].
  7. Bakshi.m, Bahari.b Vahabpour .P (2013), The Study of the Ideology of the Takfiri-Wahhabi Islamic State of Isis, The Journal of Political Sciences - Baqerul'lum University (AS) »Winter  - No. 64 [in Persian].
  8. Barzegar, Keyhan (2005), The Middle East and the «New Terrorism» ,Journal on Science and World Affairs, Vol. 1, No. 2 [in Persian].
  9. Bijani, Mehdi (2016), Study of the Causes of Terrorism in the Geography of Islam, Journal of Strategic Studies of the Islamic World »Summer of, No. 66, [in Persian].
10. Davis, Lynn E & Martini, Jeffrey & Cragin, Kim  (2017), A Strategy to Counter ISIL as a Transregional Threat, RAND corporation, Published Research.

11. Dokmijian, Herire(1998), Islam in the Revolution, The Study of the Islamic fundamentalist phenomenon, Hamid Ahmadi translation, Tehran, Kayhan publications [in Persian].

12. Esposito, John L (2010), The future of Islam. United Kingdom: Oxfird university press.

13. fpc.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/1691.pdf

14. Gregory, D. et al (2009), Dictionary of Human Geography, 5th edition UK: Wilet-Blackwell.

15. Griffiths, Martin (2009), Encyclopedia of International Relations and World Politics, translated by Alireza Tayeb, Tehran, Najran Ney.

16. Gutmann, Amy (1992), "Multicultrulism: examining the politics of recognition", Princeton University Press; 1st edition.

17. Hafeznia, Mohammadreza and Kavianirad, Morad (2014), Philosophy of Political Geography, Tehran, Strategic Studies Institute.

18. Haywood, Andrew (2008), An Introduction to Political Ideologies: From Liberalism to Religious Fundamentalism, Translation by Mohammad Rafiee, Tehran, Ministry of Foreign Affairs Publishing.

19. Islamic State, (ISIS, ISIL) Dabiq, Magazine, 2013-2015.

20. Islamic State, (ISIS, ISIL) Rumiyah, Magazine, 2015-2016.

21. James Dobbins,K. Kelly,& Sude, Barbara & Connable, Ben (2017), Knowing the Enemy Understanding the Islamic State and Principles for Defeating It Terrence, RAND corporation, Published Research. 

22. Kazemi, Hojjat (2017), Identity Rise, Fragile States and Middle East Geopolitical Crises, International Geopolitics Quarterly, 13th, No 1, Spring 2017[in Persian].

23. Lesser, Ian O (1999), Countering The New Terrorism: Implications for Strategy., in: Countering the New Terrorism, eds. Ian O. Lesser et al, Santa Monica, Calif: RAND.

24. Marranci, Gabriele (2009), Understanding muslim identity: rethinking fundamentalism. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

25. Melucci, A (1989), Nomade of the Present: Social Movments and Individual Needs in contemporary Society, ed. J. Keane and P. Mier. Hutchinson Radius: London.

26. Melucci, A (1996), The Playing Self: Person and Meaning in the Planetary Society, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

27. Nooshin Mirzaei & Seyed Ali Asghar Kazemi & Ebrahim Mottaghi (2017), The Consequences of Identity of Islamic Awakening and Arab Spring in Southwest Asia; Case Study: Syria, Geopolitics Quarterly, 13th, No. 1, Spring 2017 [in Persian].

28. Salimi, Hossein (2005), Various Theories on Globalization, Tehran, Sari Publication [in Persian].

29. Storey, D (2009), Political Geography, In: International Encyclopedia of Human Geography, Ed chief: Rob Kitchin & Nigel Therift, Vol. 8, Ansterdam.

30. Taylor, Charles (1992), Multicultrulism: examining the politics of recognition, Princeton University Press; 1st edition.

31. Taylor, P (1989), Political Geography: World Economy, Nation State & Locality, Second Edition, New York: John Wiley & Sons.

32. Wallerstein, Immanuel (1980), The Modern World System II: Mercantilism and the Consolidation of the European World Economy, 1600-1750, New York: Academic Press.

33. Wallerstein, Immanuel (1974), The Modern World System, New York, Academic Press.

34. www.alrai-iq.com/2014/07/10/38431/.

36. www.noormags.ir.

37. www.nytimes.com/interactive/2015/06/17/world/middleeast/map-isis-attacks-around-the-world.html.

40. www.tawhed.ws: Al-Moqdisi, Abu Muhammad Assem, Mullah Ibraheem, Al-Anbaa, Messengers, and the methods of the tyrants in all its aspects and dispensing with it, the platform of Tawheed and Jihad2010.

41. www.Trademap.org.