تبیین جایگاه قدرت هوشمند در سیاست خارجی چین

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری روابط بین‌الملل، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

2 استاد روابط بینالملل، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

به​دنبال تغییر و تحولات بین‌المللی، برخی از کشورها از جمله چین به این نتیجه رسیده‌اند که برای پیگیری اهداف و منافع خود ناگزیرند تا با شرایط جدید بین‌المللی هماهنگ شده و نوع جدیدی از قدرت را جستجو نمایند. در پاسخ به این سؤال که سیاست‌گذاران جدید چین چه نوعی از قدرت را در سیاست جهانی دنبال می‌نمایند تا به اهداف و منافع خود دست پیدا کنند، پژوهش حاضر درصدد است تا شکل جدید قدرت که همان قدرت هوشمند است با کمک روشی توصیفی -  تحلیلی در سیاست خارجی چین تبیین نماید. در واقع تحولات بین‌المللی و عدم کارایی قدرت سخت و نرم صرف، رهبران نسل جدید را به​سمت منابع متعدد قدرت و ترکیب هوشمندانه آنها در عرصه بین­المللی هدایت کرده است. در شرایط کنونی، پیگیری هم‌زمان این دو بعد قدرت(سخت و نرم) زمینه ارتقای جایگاه این کشور و مقابله با تهدیدات متعدد بین­المللی را فراهم آورده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Explanation of the Position of Smart Power in China's Foreign Policy

نویسندگان [English]

  • Afshin Shamiri Shekofti 1
  • Behzad Shahandeh 2
1 Ph.D Student of International Relations, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
2 Full Professor of International Relations, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract
Intrduction
In the last decades and following the international changes, many countries and in particular China have come to this conclusion which it is necessary that they adopt themselves with the new international conditions and search for a new type of power in order to pursue their goals and interests. Since applying only one type of hard or soft power will endanger the long-term interests of the country, Chinese emphasis on this key point that they require a combination of both hard power and soft power which is well known as smart power in the international arena.
Methodology
With a descriptive-analytical method and the conceptual framework of smart power, this study intended to explain what kind of power is pursued in China's foreign policy to pursue its goals, and how they use various power sources for their own goals and interests.
Findings
Over the past few decades, China's foreign policy has pursued two types of hard and soft power in the international arena.
1- Hard power: During these years, foreign policy along with other parts of the Chinese community has taken a lot of efforts to upgrade hard power sources. Economically, it has always sought to avoid international challenges and attract international resources for China's economic development process. Militarily, it has played a major role in China’s military modernization process
2- Soft power: Unlike Joseph Nye, China presented a wider definition of soft power and considered economic components as soft power.
3- The role of international institutions in the process of China's empowerment: At the moment, China's foreign policy is seeking to access their goals and interests through active participation in international organizations or the establishment of new institutions.
4- China’s economic attractions: China's foreign policy, in the framework of interdependence and win - win politics, is intended to pursue their political, security and economic interests in the regional and international arena.
5- China’s diplomacy: By pursuing comprehensive diplomacy, China's foreign policy has expanded its interactions with the other countries and international organizations, and has applied such a tool to extend its influence, power and development.
6- China’s traditional culture: although the Chinese culture has grown less than other components of power, nevertheless china’s culture has a considerable influence on the regional level. Furthermore, it is worth to mention that the China's foreign policy seeks to expand Chinese culture and language through the Confucian institutions.
Analysis
China's foreign policy pursues many goals in the international arena. With regard to new international changes, it believes that a combination of soft and hard power helps to reach at politic, economic and security interests. As well, reaching to a great power position and confronting new international threats, they have to follow a new form of power called smart power that combines hard and soft power. Therefore, in recent decades, especially in the Xi Jin Ping period, pursues various forms of soft and hard power such as diplomacy, culture, military modernization, economic etc. on the agenda of china’s foreign policy.
Conclusion
The emergence of new international conditions has led the China's foreign policy to seek a new pattern of power and security. This new pattern will be achieved within the framework of combining various sources of power. Because pursuing hard or soft power alone, cannot protect the country's long-term goals. In the shadow of the smart approach, the Chinese find more opportunity to engage with international society and its organizations. Smart power also aids to provide fairly good picture of china in its relation with others and can better counteract the challenge of China's threat.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Smart power
  • hard power
  • Economic Power
  • Military Power
  • Soft power
  • China
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