نظریه گریز (تبیین واگرایی در نظامهای سیاسی – اجتماعی)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران

2 استادیار جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

هدف پژوهش حاضر، وضع نظریه­ گریز است. این نظریه، قابلیت تبیین رفتارهای نظام­های منطقه­ای و هرگونه نظام/سیستم/تشکل/ائتلاف اجتماعی-سیاسی و نیز پیش­بینی سرانجام آنها را دارد. در خصوص نظام­های منطقه­ای به­عنوان ائتلاف­های جغرافیایی، هدف نظریه گریز تبیین فرایند شکل­گیری چالش­های واگرایی در این نوع نظام­ها است. این نظریه با معرفی مفروضات منطقی، الزامات و مقتضیات گریز یک عضو از ائتلاف­های منطقه­ای را شناسایی کرده است و با معرفی اصول، مفروضات بنیادی، شاخص­ها و عوامل، مقیاس تحلیل و حوزه­ها، چارچوبی نظری برای مطالعه، فهم و پیش­بینی کنش­ها و وضعیت آینده­ نظام­های منطقه­ای ارائه داده است. به دیگر سخن، نظریه­ گریز به این پرسش­های بنیادی پاسخ داده است؛ چرا و چگونه در یک نظام منطقه­ای، گسست به­وجود می­آید؟ با مطالعه رفتار نظام­های منطقه­ای، چگونه می­توان به پیش­بینی نوع و نحوه­ رفتار آن­ها در آینده دست یافت؟ برخورداری از چه شاخص­ها، وضعیت و عرصه­هایی می­تواند بسترهای گسست و جدایی یک یا چند عضو از یک نظام منطقه­ای را محقق سازد؟ چه نمونه­های تاریخی را در راستای نظریه­ گریز می­توان به­عنوان شاهد ذکر کرد؟ در نظام­های منطقه­ای موجود، چه پیش­بینی­هایی را می­توان درباره آینده­ این نظام­ها به​دست داد؟ نظریه­ گریز با مقیاس تحلیلی میان­فردی تا جهانی، می­تواند نوع و نحوه گسست در تشکل­ها، نهادها و سیستم­های اجتماعی-سیاسی را تبیین و رفتارهای احتمالی آن در آینده را پیش­بینی کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Digression Theory (Explanation of Divergence in Socio-political Systems)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mosayeb Gharehbeygi 1
  • Mahmood Vasegh 2
1 PhD Student of Political Geography, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
2 Assistant Professor of Political Geography, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract     
Introduction
The paper is intended to introduce and propose “digression theory”. The theory is capable of explanation and prediction of the regional system and all kind of social-political institution, system or coalition. Division/digression theory can predict the ultimate of systems and organizations according to some specific indexes. Particularly, the aim of the theory is explanation of the divergence challenges in regional systems as a geographical coalition. Digression theory has recognized the necessity and circumstances of an organ/member dividing from a coalition with introducing of logical hypothesis. Also, it has provided a logical criterion to study, explain and predict the present and future terms of regional systems by commencing principles, hypothesis, indexes and factors, analysis unit and scales. Below questions can be answered by the logical criteria of digression theory: How and why is made a digression or secession in a regional system? How can be predicted the future of a system in according of its behaviors? Which indexes, settings and positions can fortify an organ/member into dividing from a system? Which instances prove the developments along with the theory? What future can be predicted to the present regional systems with referencing to the digression theory?
Methodology
The paper is a fundamental research from the point of typology and from the purpose is a theory making (theorizing) in order to problem resolving (mental and philosophical problem) one. The analysis of paper is based on logical and epistemological theorem and reasoning. The paper’s references are absolutely improvisation.
Result and discussion
Digression theory has two main principals as follows:
Extension and Secession: according to this principal all kinds of systems or organizations will be encountered by secession as well as extension. In other words, the bigger in quality and quantity, the bigger in separation and breaking. Increasing in the space and possibilities in an organization or system brings hardest competitions among the organ or members. Members of a system attempt to achieve in top of the hierarchy order and as a central positionality dominate on others. By increasing in tension and competition, the space of dividing and making of independent system is prepared.
Stability: This principal theorizes that foundation of systems determine the quality of their stability. From this perspective, all kind of systems are made from three foundations:
1- Economic Oriented Systems (Systems are made from materialistic and economic indexes);
2- Security Oriented Systems (kind of systems which military and protective issues have made them);
3- Cultural Oriented Systems (coalition and organizing based on religion, thought, rituals and ideological commons).
The last one (cultural oriented systems) is the most stable, conservative and diehard among other three system foundations. Religion as a cultural system is the best example of stable cultural systems from the past to the present.
Division/digression theory has two fundamental hypotheses as follows:
Philosophical hypothesis: Digression theory is based on primordial human nature. This nature in Islamic philosophy is called by “human as liberation entity”. According to this nature, human being cannot stand domination. This covenant is significant in that it asserts that an understanding of the origin of man is something deeply inherent to and natural within every person. Any disconnection from this memory is referred to as being ‘forgetful’ within the scripture, Hadith literature and commentary. The Quran constantly implores people to recall and remember. Scholars suggest that the call to remember throughout the Quran is in fact a call to remember this particular moment in their spiritual history. Suggestions are also made that where people recognize people with ease, it is usually as a memory from this event. There are many scholarly perspectives taken on the significance of this covenant. It is understood as marking the beginning of human consciousness with mankind making their first conscious response to the divine question 'Am I not your lord?'. Some also see it as being relevant to the Islamic principle of unity as the entirety of mankind was said to have been assembled on the plane on this date.
Logical hypothesis: Reasonable and logical assumes of the theory are such as bellows: existing of a central-periphery structure, being of relatively hegemonic relations in the structure, will and power to division and digression, possibility and feasibility of dividing and digression, ex-systemic relations and moods, an aggressive organ or member.
Conclusion
Centre-periphery orders bring some disputes and tensions between the members of a system. By increasing in central domination some of the members with feasible indexes decide to be divided, indexes like strong economy and capitals, political parties and structures, historical-cultural wealth, outer systemic relation and interest in other members in other systems and finally, third outer systemic member intervention. The historical examples like Islam Prophet dividing Pre-Arabic system and Iranians dividing Pro-Arabic system are some most instances of digression. According to the digression theory, it is predicted that along with Qatar, states such as Kuwait, United Arab Emirates and Oman will be divided from Persian Gulf Council Corporation (GCC). Also, in European Union along with Britain other states will be separated such as Poland, Italy, Spain, Belgium and Norway.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Digression
  • Divergence
  • Regional System
  • Socio-political systems
  • Core-Periphery
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