سیاست مقایسه‌ای آمریکا در برخورد با ایران و امنیت خاورمیانه

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

پسا دکتری سیاستگذاری راهبردی و استاد علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

چگونگی تصمیم‌گیری و سیاست‌گذاری راهبردی رؤسای‌جمهور آمریکا در برخورد با ایران و امنیت خاورمیانه براساس نشانه‌های راهبردی حاصل میشود. این‌گونه نشانه‌ها با تغییرات مرحله‌ای روبه‌رو شده و تابعی از ایستارهای ذهنی تصمیم‌گیران و نگرش ژئوپلیتیکی آمریکا نسبت به حوزه‌های مختلف جغرافیایی است. ارزیابی الگوهای رفتاری باراک اوباما، جورج بوش پسر و دونالد ترامپ در مورد امنیت خاورمیانه و الگوهای راهبردی آنان در قبال ایران بیانگر این واقعیت است که آمریکا از سیاست مهار، تحریم اقتصادی، جنگ‌های نیابتی و اقدامات نامتقارن در برخورد با ایران بهره گرفته‌ است. برای اعمال چنین سیاست‌هایی در برخورد با ایران، روسای جمهور ایالات‌متحده از راهبردهایی همانند: «موازنه فراساحلی»، «اقدامات ضدتروریستی» و «نقش‌آفرینی غیرمستقیم در محیط پیرامونی» بهره گرفته‌اند. هدف اصلی مقاله آن است که درک دقیقی نسبت به الگوهای رفتار امنیتی رؤسای جمهور آمریکا در برخورد با ایران و امنیت خاورمیانه به وجود آید. این مقاله با رویکرد رئالیستی و استفاده روش توصیفی و تحلیلی در پی پاسخگویی به این پرسش است که: «مدل تصمیم‌گیری رؤسای جمهور آمریکا در روند امنیت‌سازی منطقه‌ای کدام است؟». نتایج مقاله نشان میدهد که «تغییر در رؤسای جمهور آمریکا صرفاً منجر به الگوهای کنش و تاکتیک‌های متفاوت امنیتی شده و این امر تاثیر بنیادین در راهبرد آمریکا بهجا نگذاشته است».

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

US Comparative Policy toward Iran and the Middle East Security

نویسنده [English]

  • Abbas Mossalanejad
Postdoctoral on Strategic Policy Making and Full Professor of Political Sciences, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Strategic policymaking and US foreign policy decision making towards Middle East in different historical periods have been accompanied by signs of continuity and change. The reason for this must be seen in the United States' geopolitical and strategic attitude toward Iran. Countries such as Iran have unique characteristics in terms of their strategic position, which minimizes the impact of the political system in decision-making. George Bush Jr, Barack Obama and Donald Trump are among the presidents of America who belong to different strategic traditions, but their behavioral pattern in dealing with Iran is based on indications such as "containment", "Sanction", "asymmetrical action", and "proxy war". Although the intellectual teachings and behavioral patterns of each of the presidents are different, the main strategic orientations of the US in the 21st century are based on signs of "low intense confrontation". To use of social forces to confront the patterns of political behavior and foreign policy of Iran. The support of counter-party groups with Iran in the peripheral environment within the framework of "proxy war" can be part of US strategic policy making in the form of "offshore balancing". The main purpose of this article is to understand the behavioral patterns of that group of US presidents who have had relatively different strategic goals and policies. The main question of the article is: "What kind of strategic policy making model for Iran's presidents in the 21st century has been?" The hypothesis of the paper points to this: "The difference in the mentality of the presidents of the United States in the 21st century has not influenced the strategy of offshore balancing and its policies in the form of low-intense confrontation, proxy war, and containment "The realistic approach has been used in this article.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Proxy war
  • Strategic policymaking
  • the Middle East
  • Iran
  • US

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