بازگشت به ژئوپلیتیک: بررسی سیر تحول سیاست‌های اتحادیه اروپا در قبال خاورمیانه و شمال آفریقا و الزامات آن برای جمهوری اسلامی ایران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار روابط بین الملل، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

2 دانشجوی دکتری روابط بین الملل، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

چکیده

تحولات سال‌های اخیر، منطقة خاورمیانه و شما آفریقا را در نقطة عطف ژئوپلیتیکی خود قرار داده و بیش از هر زمان دیگری اتحادیة اروپا را به چالش کشیده است؛ تا حدی که امروزه بخش مهمی از تهدیداتی که این اتحادیه فراروی خود می‌بیند از همسایگی جنوبی آن یعنی منطقة خاورمیانه و شمال آفریقا نشئت می‌گیرند. نگرش اتحادیة اروپا به این منطقه از زمان پایان جنگ سرد تا به امروز همواره درحال تغییر و تکامل بوده و به‌نوبة‌ خود به‌واسطة برداشت‌های متفاوت از خود، روابط بین منطقه‌ای و عرصه فرامنطقه‌ای، به سیاست‌های متفاوت و گاه متضاد انجامیده است. این مقاله با استفاده از یک الگوی نظری گلچینی به دنبال تحلیل سیاست های مناطق در قبال هم در دوره‌های مختلف به طور عام، و رویکرد اتحادیه اروپا در قبال منطقه خاورمیانه و شما آفریقا به شکل خاص است و نشان می‌دهد که چگونه اهمیت ژئوپلیتیک در عرصه منطقه‌ای و جهانی بازاحیا شده است. مقاله به دنبال پاسخ به این سوال است که سیاست اتحادیه اروپا در قبال این منطقه از دهه 1990 تا به امروز چه تغییراتی به خود دیده است و دلایل چنین تغییراتی چیست؟ برای پاسخ به این پرسش، مقاله با استفاده از روش تفسیری و تبیینی و با بهره‌مندی از منابع کتابخانه‌ای، در ابتدا چارچوب نظریِ طراحی‌شده برای سیاست مناطق در قبال یکدیگر را شرح می‌دهد؛ سپس، منافع و چالش های کنونی اتحادیه اروپا در این منطقه را بررسی می‌کند‌؛ و در ادامه در پرتوی چارچوب نظریِ ارائه شده در این نوشتار، یک تحلیل سه‌سطحیِ درباره بازگشت اتحادیه اروپا به ژئوپلیتیک در قبال این منطقه را ارائه می‌نماید؛ در ادامه نیز تلاش می‌شود انعکاس «بازگشت به ژئوپلیتیکِ» اتحادیه اروپا در سیاست‌های آن در قبال منطقه مورد بررسی قرار گیرد. در پایان نیز، ضمن ارایه جمعبندی و ذکر دستاوردهای پژوهشی احتمالیِ این مقاله، الزاماتی که آنها می‌توانند برای سیاستگذاری خارجی جمهوری اسلامی ایران، بویژه در قبال اتحادیه اروپایی داشته باشند، خاطرنشان می‌گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Return to Geopolitics: The Evolution of EU Policies towards the Middle East and North Africa and Its Implications for the Islamic Republic of Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Roohollah Talebi Arani 1
  • Behzad Ahmadi Lafurak 2
1 Assistant Professor of International Relations, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
2 Ph.D Student of International Relations, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Today, an important part of the threats facing the EU comes from its southern neighborhood namely the MENA region. Along with this trend, the EU's approach to the MENA region has been constantly evolving since the end of the Cold War. In this framework, aiming to analyze regions’ policies towards each other during different periods generally, and EU's approach towards MENA in particular, by using an eclectic theoretical model in order to illustrate the relevance, and even growing prominence of geopolitics in 21rst century’s global and regional politics, this article asks “how and why has the EU's policy towards the MENA changed since the 1990s?” To answer this question, by using the proposed theoretical model, the current EU interests and challenges in the MENA are discussed; then, drawing on a historical analysis, it is showed how have intra-regional dynamisms of the EU, interregional dynamisms between the EU and the MENA, and trans-regional developments prevalent on their relations evolved during three recent decades; and the reflection of the EU's "return to geopolitics" in its policies towards MENA are documentarily examined. In other words, the article exemplifies how the EU has changed its policy towards the MENA, from Geo-culture-based to Geo-economics-based, and at last, to Geopolitics-based. Finally, while summarizing the possible research achievements, its implications for the foreign policy of the Islamic Republic of Iran, especially in its relations with the EU, are pointed out. Given that we, on the one hand, have developed a causal model for analyzing regions’ policy towards each other, and on the other hand, have analyzed the EU’s policy documents, drawn on both explanatory and descriptive methods simultaneously.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • EU
  • MENA
  • Geopolitics
  • Geo- economic
  • Geo-culture

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