سرمایه اجتماعی بین المللی؛ چارچوبی برای تبیین روابط ایران و عربستان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم سیاسی، دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران

2 دانش‏آموخته کارشناسی ارشد علوم سیاسی از دانشگاه خوارزمی تهران

چکیده

با وجود اینکه روابط پر فراز و نشیب ایران و عربستان به عنوان دو کشور تأثیرگذار خاورمیانه در سال‏های پس از انقلاب اسلامی مورد توجه بسیاری از محققین و صاحب‏نظران بوده و از زوایای مختلف به آن پرداخته شده، اما تاکنون به تأثیر "سرمایه اجتماعی بین‏المللی" بر روابط ایران و عربستان پرداخته نشده است. بر این اساس پرسش اصلی مقاله این است که سرمایه اجتماعی بین­المللی چه تأثیری بر روابط ایران و عربستان در سال‏های پس از انقلاب اسلامی داشته است؟ در پاسخ به پرسش مذکور بر این فرضیه تأکید می‏شود که میان نوسان در روابط ایران و عربستان در سال‏های پس از انقلاب اسلامی و نوسان در میزان سرمایه اجتماعی بین‏المللی آنها همبستگی وجود دارد. در واقع هدف نویسندگان مقاله این است که با نقد و بررسی رهیافت‏ها و رویکردهای موجود، از «سرمایه اجتماعی بین­المللی» به عنوان چارچوبی متفاوت یاد کرده و مبانی تئوریک، مؤلفه‏های مفهومی و نحوه کاربست آن برای تبیین روابط ایران و عربستان را مورد بررسی قرار دهند و در نهایت نیز با استفاده از روش همبستگی، میزان ارتباط متغیرهای مذکور را مشخص کنند

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

International Social Capital; A Framework for Explaining Iran and Saudi Arabia Relations

نویسندگان [English]

  • Reza Khalili 1
  • Hamed Mehraban Incheh broon 2
1 Political science Department, Law and Political Science Faculty, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
2 Political Science Department, Law and Political Science Faculty, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

ExtendedAbstract 
Introduction
The widespread fluctuations in Iran-Saudi relations as two influential countries of the Middle East have led many scholars and experts to explain their relationship, which has led to the development of various views and opinions in this regard. By critically examining these views and theories, it can be seen that although each of them has the ability to explain the stages or periods of relations between the two countries, they have not been able to explain the whole fluctuation in their relations. This situation has led to study of the issue as main problem of the article and the critique of the existing views and ideas aimed to introduce "international social capital" as a new approach, and analyzing the fluctuations of relations between the two countries in the years after the Islamic Revolution based on the approach.
Methodology
This research at the theoretical and practical levels requires using of its own methods. At the theoretical level, using the documents and library resources, describes and criticizes existing approaches. In the next stage, is explained the conceptual and theoretical basis of international social capital as a new framework. Accordingly, at the practical level, after determining the dimensions, components and indicators of international social capital, quantitative measurements placed on the agenda in order to finally analyze the relationship between the fluctuation in the international social capital of Iran and Saudi Arabia and the fluctuation in relations between the two countries, based on the available statistical data.
Findings
The findings of this study are discussed under the following themes:
1. Critique of the existing views and approaches on Iran and Saudi Arabia Relations
The existing views and approaches on Iran and Saudi Arabia relations have some deficiency in the ontological, epistemological and methodological levels, which discussed in details in theoretical part of the article.
 
2. Benefits of international social capital as a framework for explaining Iran and Saudi Arabia relations
International social capital as a new theoretical approach has some advantages for explaining relationship between Iran and Saudi Arabia in compare to the existing approaches discussed in the article.
3. Measurement of international social capital of Iran and Saudi Arabia during the years under review
Attempts have been made to measure the amount of international social capital of Iran and Saudi Arabia annually based on accurate and comprehensive quantitative indicators.
4. Measure the fluctuation in relations of Iran and Saudi Arabia in the years under review
Attempts have been made to measure the fluctuation of Iran-Saudi Arabia relations in the period under review, based on quantitative indicators.
5. Influence of Iran and Saudi Arabia's international social capital on their relations
Data analysis clearly shows that the fluctuation in relations between Iran and Saudi Arabia in the years after the Islamic Revolution was influenced by the fluctuation in their international social capital.
Analysis
The average of total international social capital of Iran and Saudi Arabia in the first period of relations between the two countries was 30 and 55, respectively. The 25 percent difference between their international social capital shows that there is tension in their relationship with a score of 28, which is obtained for the level of relations between the two countries.
The average of total international social capital of Iran and Saudi Arabia in the second period was 38 and 58 respectively. The upward trend of the international social capital of the two countries compared to the previous period is consistent with the increase in the level of relations between the two countries to 61 score.
The average of total international social capital of Iran and Saudi Arabia in the third period of relations between the two countries was 34 and 53 respectively, indicating a decreasing trend, and this situation matches with the decrease of the average rating of the relations between the two countries to 30.
The average of total international social capital of Iran and Saudi Arabia in the fourth period of relations between the two countries was 35 and 53 respectively, which is slightly different from the previous period. This situation is also consistent with a slight increase in the level of the relationship between the two countries.
Conclusion
ExtendedAbstract 
Introduction
The widespread fluctuations in Iran-Saudi relations as two influential countries of the Middle East have led many scholars and experts to explain their relationship, which has led to the development of various views and opinions in this regard. By critically examining these views and theories, it can be seen that although each of them has the ability to explain the stages or periods of relations between the two countries, they have not been able to explain the whole fluctuation in their relations. This situation has led to study of the issue as main problem of the article and the critique of the existing views and ideas aimed to introduce "international social capital" as a new approach, and analyzing the fluctuations of relations between the two countries in the years after the Islamic Revolution based on the approach.
Methodology
This research at the theoretical and practical levels requires using of its own methods. At the theoretical level, using the documents and library resources, describes and criticizes existing approaches. In the next stage, is explained the conceptual and theoretical basis of international social capital as a new framework. Accordingly, at the practical level, after determining the dimensions, components and indicators of international social capital, quantitative measurements placed on the agenda in order to finally analyze the relationship between the fluctuation in the international social capital of Iran and Saudi Arabia and the fluctuation in relations between the two countries, based on the available statistical data.
Findings
The findings of this study are discussed under the following themes:
1. Critique of the existing views and approaches on Iran and Saudi Arabia Relations
The existing views and approaches on Iran and Saudi Arabia relations have some deficiency in the ontological, epistemological and methodological levels, which discussed in details in theoretical part of the article.
 
2. Benefits of international social capital as a framework for explaining Iran and Saudi Arabia relations
International social capital as a new theoretical approach has some advantages for explaining relationship between Iran and Saudi Arabia in compare to the existing approaches discussed in the article.
3. Measurement of international social capital of Iran and Saudi Arabia during the years under review
Attempts have been made to measure the amount of international social capital of Iran and Saudi Arabia annually based on accurate and comprehensive quantitative indicators.
4. Measure the fluctuation in relations of Iran and Saudi Arabia in the years under review
Attempts have been made to measure the fluctuation of Iran-Saudi Arabia relations in the period under review, based on quantitative indicators.
5. Influence of Iran and Saudi Arabia's international social capital on their relations
Data analysis clearly shows that the fluctuation in relations between Iran and Saudi Arabia in the years after the Islamic Revolution was influenced by the fluctuation in their international social capital.
Analysis
The average of total international social capital of Iran and Saudi Arabia in the first period of relations between the two countries was 30 and 55, respectively. The 25 percent difference between their international social capital shows that there is tension in their relationship with a score of 28, which is obtained for the level of relations between the two countries.
The average of total international social capital of Iran and Saudi Arabia in the second period was 38 and 58 respectively. The upward trend of the international social capital of the two countries compared to the previous period is consistent with the increase in the level of relations between the two countries to 61 score.
The average of total international social capital of Iran and Saudi Arabia in the third period of relations between the two countries was 34 and 53 respectively, indicating a decreasing trend, and this situation matches with the decrease of the average rating of the relations between the two countries to 30.
The average of total international social capital of Iran and Saudi Arabia in the fourth period of relations between the two countries was 35 and 53 respectively, which is slightly different from the previous period. This situation is also consistent with a slight increase in the level of the relationship between the two countries.
Conclusion
Research findings indicate that whenever international social capital of the two countries started to grow at the same time, their relations went out of tension and rivalry, and led them to friendly relations and cooperation. In contrast, when the international social capital of the two countries collapsed simultaneously, often the relations between the two countries have been out of competition and they have been on the path to tension and hostility. Also, if the international social capital of a country has increased and the international social capital of the other country has fallen, the relations between the two countries have led to tension and hostility.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Foreign Relations
  • Iran
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Theoretical Approaches
  • International Social Capital
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