شکل گیری و تکامل سازمان های منطقه ای؛ مورد مطالعه، سازمان همکاری های اقتصادی (اکو)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته دکتری جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، تهران.

2 ستاد روابط بین الملل، دانشکده روابط بین الملل وزارت امور خارجه، تهران

چکیده

بر اساس پتانسیل­های بالای ژئوپلیتیکی و ظرفیت­های فراوان ارتباطی منطقه اکو، اعضا می­توانند همگرایی خود را با محوریت سازمان همکاری­های اقتصادی ارتقاء داده و نقش مهمی را برای این سازمان در توسعه ملی و گسترش صلح و امنیت منطقه­ای تعریف نمایند. بر اساس مطالعه عوامل مؤثر بر شکل­گیری و تکامل سازمان­های منطقه­ای، خصوصاً اکو، به نظر می­رسد، برایند نیروهای درون و برون منطقه­ای نتوانسته است در راستای تقویت همگرایی منطقه­ای اکو عمل کند، لیکن مرور وضعیت نیروهای همگرا و واگرا در سازمان­های منطقه­ای موفق بیانگر اهمیت نقش دیپلماسی چندجانبه و توانمندی نهادی سازمان­های مزبور در حل­وفصل موانع همگرایی است. بر اساس تحلیلی کیفی یافته­های کتابخانه­ای و مصاحبه با خبرگان، متغیرهای تأثیرگذار بر همگرایی و واگرایی اعضای اکو که براساس یافته­های نظری تعریف و شاخص­گذاری شده بودند مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفته است. نتایج تحقیق بیانگر این واقعیت است که نیل به خودآگاهی منطقه­ای و درک مشترک از ظرفیت­های و ارزش­های ژئوپلیتیکی در منطقه اکو به بلوغ نرسیده است. همچنین ساختار مناسبات و روابط بازیگران معرف فقدان درک مشترک منطقه­ای درباره ارزش­های مشترک است. به­رغم برخی موفقیت­ها در تکامل ساختار و سازمان و اسناد پایه، ضعف در نهادهای سیاسی داخلی اعضا، ضعف در ساختار سازمانی، خصوصاً درباره کارمندان و کارشناسان و نیز برخی ناکارآمدهای سازمانی، به­ویژه در دبیرخانه موجب فقدان کارایی متناسب و ضعف­های ساختاری در اکو شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Formation and Evolution of Regional Organizations: Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) (a case-study)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Amir Hossein Elhami 1
  • Seyed Mohammd Kazem Sajjadpour 2
1 Ph.D. of Political Geography, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran
2 Full Professor of International Relation, Department of Diplomacy and International Organizations of School of International Relations, Tehran
چکیده [English]

Because of the many geopolitical potentials and communicational capabilities of ECO region, members could expand the convergency based on this organization which plays a key part in development of members and expandsion of peace and security. Due to studying the effective factors of Regional Organizations (ROs), particularly those of ECO, it seems that the resultant of internal and external regional forces fails to empower ECO members’ integration, but with a review of other successful ROs, it is revealed that they have a process mechanism which strengthens convergent forces and mitigates the divergent ones with institutionalized tools and active positive diplomacy. Based on qualitative analysis conducted on desk and in interview with geopolitical experts; this study seeks to answer the question: what are the effective factors of formation and evolution of ROs in general and those of ECO in particular? The results of the research indicate that creating a regional consciousness and a common understanding of capabilities and geopolitical values in ECO region has failed to reach maturity. The structure of competition between members represents the lack of regional common understanding on these values. Despite the progress, the evolution of structural and organizational development of ECO and its essential documents; the weakness of policy to create coordination in multilateral diplomacy, the weakness of domestic political institutions, the weakness of organizational structure, especially in staff and technical expertise, and eventually incompetency of organization and human resources, especially in the Secretariat, have caused many inefficiencies and structural weaknesses in ECO.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Geopolitical region
  • Regional Integration (RI)
  • Regional Organizations (ROs)
  • ECO
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