تاثیر لابی اسرائیل بر روابط ایران و اتحادیه اروپا با تاکید بر برنامه هسته‌ای ایران

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری روابط بین‌الملل، دانشکده حقوق، الهیات و علوم سیاسی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی‌، تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه روابط بین‌الملل، دانشکده حقوق، الهیات و علوم سیاسی، واحد علوم‌و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی‌، تهران، ایران

3 استاد گروه روابط بین‌الملل، دانشکده اقتصاد و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران‌، ایران

4 استاد گروه روابط بین‌الملل، دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران‌، ایران

چکیده

لابی‌گری اسرائیل در اتحادیه اروپا متفاوت از ایالات متحده و با اعطای قدرت از سوی نهادهای اتحادیه اروپا در طول بیست سال گذشته توسعه­ یافته است. روابط ایران و اتحادیه اروپا در هر دوره با برخی چالش­های سیاسی نظیر برنامه هسته­ای ایران دچار نوسان گردیده است. با توجه به اهمیت اتحادیه اروپا به عنوان یک بازیگر مهم بین­المللی، از این رو تاثیر لابی اسرائیل بر رفتار سیاست خارجی اتحادیه اروپا در روابطش با ایران به ویژه در برنامه هسته­ای آن می­تواند حائز اهمیت باشد. روش­شناسی این پژوهش به دنبال بررسی تاثیر لابی اسرائیل بر روابط ایران و اتحادیه اروپا با تاکید بر برنامه هسته­ای ایران و روش توصیفی- ­تحلیلی می­باشد. یافته­های پژوهش نشان می­دهد که اسرائیل با نفوذ نهادهای خود در پارلمان اروپا از طریق برگزاری نشست، کنفرانس، ملاقات با مقامات اروپایی، مصاحبه و انتشار مقاله و بیانیه علیه ایران توانسته حداکثر بهره­وری از محور اختلاف برنامه هسته­ای ایران به­ منظور پیشبرد اهداف خود و کاهش روابط ایران و اتحادیه داشته باشد. کنگره یهودیان اروپا و دوستان اروپایی اسرائیل به عنوان مهم‌ترین نهادهای لابی اسرائیل در بروکسل علیه ایران بیش‌ترین تاثیر را بر روابط ایران­–­اتحادیه اروپا در حوزه­هایی نظیر عدم قالب­بندی موافقت­نامه جامع همکاری،  تداوم لحن انتقادی اروپا نسبت به برنامه هسته­ای و پرهیز سفر مقامات اروپایی به ایران تاثیر داشته است. اسرائیل با استفاده از ابزار استراتژیک تبلیغات منفی علیه ایران در قالب ایران‌هراسی و برجسته نشان دادن برنامه هسته­ای ایران به عنوان تهدیدی مخرب در منطقه و سطح بین­الملل توانسته­ با نفوذ در پارلمان اروپا گروه­ها و نهادهای لابی در اتحادیه اروپا تشکیل و مقاصد سیاسی و استراتژیکی خود را عملی سازد. مقاله­ی حاضر، در پی بررسی تاثیر لابی اسرائیل بر روابط ایران و اتحادیه اروپا با تمرکز بر برنامه هسته­ای ایران می­باشد و تلاش می­کند تا به سوال اصلی پاسخ دهد لابی­ اسرائیل با برجسته­سازی تهدید برنامه هسته­ای ایران برای اروپا در کاهش روابط سیاسی میان ایران و اتحادیه اروپا از طریق افزایش اعمال تحریم­های شدید، اقدامات محدودکننده­ و تداوم لحن انتقادی اروپا در قالب قطعنامه و بیانیه نسبت به برنامه هسته­ای ایران تاثیر داشته است

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Israel Lobby’s Influence on Relations among Iran and European Union by Emphasizing on Iran Nuclear Programs

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zahra Alvandi 1
  • Mehdi Zakerian Amiri 2
  • Seyed Abdolali Ghavam 3
  • Hamid Ahmadi 4
1 PhD Student of International Relations, Department of Law,‌Theology and Political Science, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research branch, Tehran , Iran
2 Associate Professor of International Relations,Department of Law, Theology and Political Science, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research branch, Tehran , Iran
3 Full Professor of International Relations, Department of Economic & Political Science, Shahid Beheshti University,Tehran, Iran.
4 Full Professor of International Relations, Department of Law and Political Science, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract     
Introduction
Israel lobby in European Union is different from United States and has developed during twenty recent years by granting powers from institutions of European Union. The relations between Iran and European Union has been faced with political challenges such as Iran Nuclear Programs. Israel lobby’ influence on foreign policy behavior of Euroepan Union on relations with Iran especially Iran nuclear programs would be essential according the importance of  European Union as an International actor .
Methodology
The methodology of this paper is based on descriptive-analytical and discourse analysis methods seek to study the main question that is Lobby Israel’s Influence on relations among Iran and European Union by emphasizing on Iran nuclear programs
Findings
Findings of this study are discussed under the following themes:
1-       institutions of Israel lobby through influencing in European Parliament have attempted to benefit the maximum efficiency via Iran nuclear programs by organizing the sessions, conference, meeting with European authorities, interview, publication article and statement against Iran in order to decresa the relations among Iran and Euroepan Union as well as advancement of Isreal’s interest.
2-European Jewish Congress and European Friends of Israel as the most important lobby institutions in Brussles affected on the relations among Iran and Euroepan Union in the fields such as the lack of formatting the relations in framework of comprehensive cooperation agreement, avoiding European authorities for trip to Iran and countinuity of critical tone of Europe to Iran nuclear programs.
Analysis
Israel by using strategic instrument of negative propaganda agagint Iran as Iranophobia and highliting Iran nuclear programs as destructive threat in the regional and International level has attempted to influence the institutions of Lobby in European Parliament in order to effect and actualize political and strategic purposes.
Conclusion
The main hypothesis emphasize main question that Israel lobby’s influence in European Union has been affected the highlighting the Iran’s nuclear programs threat  in reducing political relations among Iran and European Union by applying economic-commercial sanctions and restrictive measures on Iran as well as continuity of critical tone of Europe to Iran nuclear programs.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Israel lobby
  • Iran
  • European Union
  • Sanction
  • Iran Nuclear Programs
  1. Ahmadi Lafuraki, B.(2019). Return to Geopolitics: Evolution of EU Policies towards the MENA and its Implications for Iran. Geopolitics Quarterly,Vol:14, No.3.
  2. AJC Transatlantic Institute: www.transatlanticinstitte.org/press/release/ajc-welcomes-tough-grilling-iranian-parlimentarians-european-parliment
  3. AJC Transatlantic Institute: www.transatlanticinstitte.org/press/release/ajc-welcomes-mep-letter-calling-eu-list-entire-hezbollah-terror-group.
  4. AJC Transatlantic Institue www.transatlanticinstitte.org/analysis/hezbollah-terrorist-organization-and-threat-eorope
  5. AJC Transatlantic Institute: www.transatlanticinstitte.org/event/european-parliment-hearingiran-and-containment-trap
  6. Alcaro, R (2008). (2018). Europe and Iran’s Nuclear Crisis. Publication: PALGRAVE.DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-74298-4
  7. Argano, M. E (2018 ). The Iranian Nuclear Deal : the Challenge of the European Union. EYES ON EUROPE, 2 December.
  8. Ashley, S.P (2012). The Iranian Nuclear Program:Realist vs. Constractivist Model. E-International Relations Publisher.
  9. Barzgar, K; Others.­(2018). Recent Development of Arabs, Power Balancing and New Regional Group in Middle East. Geopolitics Quarterly,Vol:14, No.4. [In Persian]
  10. Catherin Ashton High Representative /­Vice President Statement on Iran, (19.Jan.2010). www.europa.eu/press-release_SPEECH-10-4_EN.
  11. Cook, J. (2008). Israel and the Clash of Civilizations. London: Pluto Press. DOI: 10.2307/j.ctt18fs4kq.
  12. Cronin,D; Marusek, S; Miller, D. (2016). the Israel Lobby and European Union. Glasgow, Publication: Public Interest Investigation. http://dx.doi. org/10.1080/0031322X.2014.965877.
  13. Declaration by the presidency on the behalf of EU on recent anti-Israeli Statements.PRESS RELEASE database, 25.Jan.2008: www.europa.eu/ rapid/press-release_PESC-08-23-EN.
  14. Declaration by the presidency on the behalf of EU On Recent anti-Israeli Statements : Europa.eu/rapid/press-release_PESC-08-23 
  15. EFD-European Foundation for Democracy. Jobs.euractive.com/company/ efd-european-foundation-democracy-427.
  16. EJC calls Sanctions Resolution last chance for a peaceful resolution to the Iranian NUCLEAR Program , JUNE, 2010: eurojewcong.org/ejc-in-action/ Statements.
  17. EJC Calls the Iran Nuclear Deal A Prize for Radicalism and a Western Surrender. Jul.2015: eurojewcong.org/ejc-in-action/ Statements.
  18. EJC delegation met with EU Leadership to discuss Iranian Nuclear Threat and EU-Israel Relations, Jul.2013: eurojewcong.org/ejc-in-action/ Events & Meetings.
  19. EJC DENOUNCES Iranian President’s Participation in UN Conference , June.2008 : eurojewcong.org/ejc-in-action/ Statements.
  20. EJC Executive meets with EU Presidency to discuss Duban II,Anti-Semitism in Europe and Iranian Threat, March,2009: eurojewcong.org/ejc-in-action/ Events EJC Office Opens in Brussels with Iran high on the agenda, Oct.2009: eurojewcong.org/ejc-in-action/ Events & Meetings.
  21. EJC General Assembly in Vienna –Jewish Communities in Europe Mobilize against Iranian President ,Feb. 2006 : eurojewcong.org/ejc-in-action/ Events & Meetings.
  22. EJC Meets with Russian President Vladimir,Oct.2007: eurojewcong.org/ejc -in-action/ Events & Meetings.
  23. EJC President calls on European Leader’s to Think Long Term and Impose Sanctions on Iran’s Oil Industry, Dec.2011: eurojewcong.org/ejc-in-action/ Statements.
  24. Eslami, M; Others. (2019). Geopolitical Security Environment of Israel and Its Identical Policy. Geopolitics Quarterly,Vol:14, No.4.
  25. EU Approach towards IRAN , European Parliemnt resolution: 10 March 2011: www.europal.europa.eu/sides/getdoc.do?type P7_TA(2016)0096
  26. EU Strategy towards Iran after Nuclear Agreement: European Parliemnt resolution:26 Oct.2016: www.europal.europa.eu/doceo/documnent/ P8_TA (2016)0402.
  27. Euroepan Parliament Resolution: A7_0037/2011www. europarl.europa.eu/ sides/getDoc European Coalition for Israel, http:// www. ec4i.org/donate.
  28. European Foundation for Democracy, EFD’ Events in 2011: Europeandemocracy.eu/2012/01/efd-events-2011.
  29. European Foundation for Democracy, EFD’ Events in 2011: Europeandemocracy.eu/2012/01/efd-events-2011. European foundation for democracy: www.europeandeocracy.eu.
  30. European Jewish Communities Moblize against Iran, Nov.2005: eurojewcong.org/ejc-in-action/ Events & Meetings.
  31. European Jewish Congress calls the European Parliament’s roadmap for relations with Iran a massive missed opportunity, Oct.2016: eurojewcong.org/ejc-in-action/ Statements.
  32. European Parliament resolution of 31 January 2008 on Iran:  www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//TEXT+TA+P6-TA-2008-0031+0+DOC+XML+V0//EN.
  33. Hafeznia, M.R; Others.­(2014).­Tension and Conflict Theories between Countries:Review, Critique and Presenting a Theoretical Model. Geopolitics Quarterly,Vol:9, No.4.
  34. Katzman, Kenneth.­(­2019). Iran Sanction.­Congressional Research Service. RS20871.
  35. Motion for a Resolution.(2006). www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do? pubRef=-//EP//TEXT+MOTION+B6-2006 0106+0+DOC+XML+V0 //EN & language=EN.
  36. Nili, Sh (2011). The Nuclear and Holocaust: Israel, Ian and Shadows of Auschwitz. Journal of Strategic Security, No.1, Volume 4, Spring.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5038/1944-0472.4.1.3.
  37. Nugroho, G (2008). Constructivism and International Relations Theories.   Semantic Scholars.
  38. Oborne, P. (2012). Conservative Friends of Israel. The Telegraph, 12 December.
  39. Pardo, Sh. (­2009). Uneasy Neighbors: Israel and European Union. Publication­: Lexington Books.
  40. Sanctions Tally­–­European Union­, Iran-Watch: www.iranwatch.org/sanc- tions / european –union.
  41. Sazmand, B; Kavianfar, P. (2017). European Interstate Initiatives before and after Resolution of Nuclear Issue. Geopolitics Quarterly, Vol:12, No.4.
  42. Seeberg, P (2016­). The EU and International Sanctions against Iran. Palgrave Communications 2, No. 16080.
  43. Statement by High Representative Catherine Ashton on Iran,European Union, 21.May.2010.
  44. Statement by High Representative Catherine Ashton on Iran: Europa.eu/rapid/press-release_EU/A85/10.
  45. Statement Euroepan Parlemant on Iran: Europa.eu/rapid/press-release_SPEECH-10-4.
  46. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, (Fars News,17.June .(2019). www.farsnews.ir/news/13980327000985).
  47. Wendt, A. (1999). Social Theory of Interational Politics. Cambridge University Press.­ https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511612183 www. Transatlanticinstitute.org/?page_id=11.
  48. Yildiz, U.B. (2014). the Influence of the European Friends of Israel on the Members of the European Parliament. ALTERNATIVES Turkish Journal of International Relations, Vol.13, No.4

Yousefijoibari, M.­(2015). Effective Components in EU Approach on Iran in 10th Administration. Policy Quarterly, No.2, Vol:2. [In Persian]