نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
دانشیار روابط بینالملل دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.
عنوان مقاله [English]
There are developments that can change the world order. The transition of the international system from simple and linear to a complex and chaotic system, in the context of international multi-body systems, has brought new challenges to explain its order. International relations literature has studied order from a simple and classical perspective and the international system is perceived as a linear system, while this is a complex and chaotic. Complexity theory offers a new set of conceptual tools to help explain the global order. It constitutes a challenge to more traditional forms of theorizing in international politics and offers new ways of thinking about it. A new pattern of order is emerging, which can be conceptualized as the dissipative and bifurcated order.
The most prominent methodological aspect of achieving this goal is to utilize the abductive model in theoretical inference and to utilize the complexity-chaos theory assumptions and its conceptualization in the complex international relations. The abduction methodology refers to some form of explanatory reasoning. It refers to the place of explanatory reasoning in generating hypotheses, and also in justifying them. Abduction is finding the best explanation. Chaos and complexity as two important characteristics of the international system lead to dissipative and bifurcated order as the best explanation of the new world order.
Results and discussion
Complexity theory offers a new set of conceptual tools to help explain the global order. It constitutes a challenge to more traditional forms of theorizing in international politics and offers new ways of thinking about it. A new pattern of order is emerging, which can be conceptualized as the dissipative and bifurcated order. This article seeks to provide a theoretical model for explaining the new order based on the element of complexity and its theories. In this regard, the author pioneers the dissipative and bifurcated order as an innovative theoretical model to the scientific community of international relations. This model is based on the ontology and epistemological foundations of complexity theory.
The article provides a new theoretical model in the framework of dissipative and bifurcated order by establishing a link between multibody and complex systems theory and international order. The model has the essential features as follows:
The multibody system as main construction of new international order;
Systemic pressures as the cause of bifurcation, and formation of dissipative structures and processes;
Bifurcating and dissipation as the main response to systemic pressures;
Feedback strategic stability and feedback strategic deadlock as a new concept to explain the balance of power and dynamic equilibrium;
The layered hierarchy as one of the most important theoretical concepts to explain the new order. In this model, polarity is replaced by centrality. The order has two properties, including circularity,centrality-based and layered, nested hierarchy;
The convergence of different sub-networks and their dynamics and forming a global nested network along with differentiated clusters;
The dissipative and bifurcated control system as the main model of control;
The equation of internal order and external disorder. This type of control system provides order by using internal capacities and creating branches in the external
Oscillational equilibrium as the main route to evolution.
Yu, P. (2006). Bifurcation, limit cycle and chaos of nonlinear dynamical systems. Edited Series on Advances in Nonlinear Science and Complexity, 1.