اهمیت کدهای ژئوپلیتیکی در ایفای نقش فراملی کلان‌شهرها (کلان‌شهرهای ایران)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

2 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی‌ارشد، جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

امروزه بسیاری از نظریه­پردازان مباحث جهانی شدن و شبکه شهرهای جهانی تأکید دارند که در متن اقتصاد جهانی پسافوردیسم شهرها به عنوان گره­های شبکه­ها و بازیگران جدید عرصه بین­الملل به همکاری و رقابت می­پردازند. از همین منظر معتقدند که این شهرهای جهانی هستند که در آینده جای حکومت - ملت پایه را خواهد گرفت. از طرف دیگر جغرافی­دانان سیاسی در جهان معتقدند که شهرها نه تنها جای حکومت - ملت پایه­ها را نخواهند گرفت بلکه حکومت ـ ملت پایه­ها نقش و کارکردهای جدیدی را در جهانی شدن می­یابند.
این مقاله بر روی این موضوع تأکید دارد که کدهای ژئوپلیتیکی کشورها به فعالیت­های شهرهای یک کشور در سه سطح در مقیاس فراملی تأثیرگذار است و شهرهای هر کشوری با توجه به کدهای ژئوپلیتیکی همان کشور در این سه سطح محلی، منطقه­ای، جهانی می­توانند در فضای فراملی وارد شده و به رقابت و تعامل با سایر شهرها بپردازند. در این میان کدهای ژئوپلیتیکی کشور ایران و چالش آن­ها با کدهای ژئوپلیتیکی ایالات متحده سبب شده است تا ایران همواره جهت ورود به فضای جریان­ها با مشکلات گسترده­ای در عرصه بین­الملل مواجه شود و کلان­شهرهای آن نیز که از ظرفیت­های جهان شهری و حضور در شبکه جهان شهرها برخوردار می­باشند، نتوانند هم­چون سایر کلان­شهرهای همتای خود در منطقه از فضای جهانی شدن معاصر بهره­برداری نمایند. این مقاله با رویکردی اسنادی ـ تحلیلی به دنبال بررسی تعاملات فضای جریان­ها بر اساس منطق کدهای ژئوپلیتیکی می­باشد و فرصت­ها و محدودیت­های کلان­شهرهای ایران را با تکیه بر کدهای ژئوپلیتیکی مورد بررسی قرار خواهد داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Importance of Geopolitical Codes in the Transnational Role of Metropolises: Emphasis on Iranian Metropolises

نویسندگان [English]

  • Morteza Ghourchi 1
  • Sepideh Sadat Mousavian 2
1 Faculty member, Department of Human Geography and Planning, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
2 M.Sc. Student, Political Geography, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract
Introduction
According to Castells and Taylor, the world was based on space of places until the early 1970s. In such a context, any international interaction of institutions within the state must be pursued through the government, and the government of each country considers itself responsible for its nation and territory. But today, many theorists of globalization and the global cities network have emphasized in numerous articles that in the context of the post-Fordist global economy, cities are collaborating and competing as nodes of networks and new actors in the international arena. From this perspective, they believe that these are global cities that will replace the nation-state in the future. Political geographers around the world, on the other hand, believe that cities not only will not replace the nation-state, but also the they will find new roles and functions in globalization. This paper based on a historical-analytical approach is surveying space of flows interactions according to the logic of geopolitical codes and tries to clarify and explains Iranian metropolises challenges and opportunities in this context.
 
Methodology
This research method descriptive-analysis with the method of data gathering is based upon library studies and the use of books, articles Seeks to investigate the interactions of space of flows based on the logic of geopolitical codes.
 
Results and Discussion
1. The concept of politics and its relation to geopolitical codes: Geopolitical codes, as a result of the political affairs of countries, determine the ways in which the sovereignty of a country must be maintained or its status and prosperity increased. In this sense, the concept of friend and foe is an important tool of politics in explaining the geopolitical codes of countries in the world system. In this regard, many world leaders, by expressing their geopolitical codes in line with our concept and another in the world of Post-Fordism, prevent the presence of many nodes in the global economy. The geopolitics codes of Iran are in conflict with the codes of the United States of America, which has global geopolitical codes, and thus has created a kind of “us “and “them” in the world system.
 
2. Diplomacy: City diplomacy has been formed in parallel with the level of government diplomacy between different countries of the world, and today many cities and metropolises around the world use these tools to achieve economic, cultural and social goals in line with their national interests.
 
Conclusions
This research emphasizes that the geopolitical codes of countries affect the activities of cities of a country at three levels on a transnational scale, and the cities of each country according to the geopolitical codes of the same country in these three local, regional and global levels can enter the transnational space and compete and interact with other cities. Iran, with its important features in the arena of world geopolitical rivalries and space of places, has not yet been able to enter into the space of flows and contemporary globalization. For example, with the expansion of the concept of "us" and "the other" as a tool of US politics as a defense mechanism in the global arena, it deals with potential threats in the form of a geopolitical code called the axis of evil. To be present in the world of cities and performance a role in the space of flows as an actor

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • globalization
  • Space of flows
  • Geopolitical Codes
  • Global Cities Network
  • Iranian metropolises
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