بررسی و تحلیل جایگاه توانمندی نظامی در قدرت نرم کشورها

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری جغرافیای سیاسی. دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

2 دانشیار جغرافیای سیاسی. دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران.

3 استادیار جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری . دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران.

چکیده

حدود سه دهه است که از طرح اصطلاح قدرت نرم توسط جوزف نای می‌گذرد. وی در این مفهوم، فرهنگ، ارزش‌های سیاسی و سیاست خارجی را به عنوان منابع قدرت نرم و توان نظامی و مشوق‌های اقتصادی را در طیف قدرت سخت و نقطه مقابل قدرت نرم قرار می‌دهد. این در حالی است که شواهد و مستندات علمی حاکی از این دارند که برخلاف دیدگاه رایج، ظرفیت نظامی نیز می‌تواند به شرط تبعیت از هستی‌شناسی قدرت نرم، در این قدرت ایفای نقش نماید. به همین منظور این پژوهش با اتکا بر روش توصیفی- تحلیلی درصدد است به این مسئله پاسخ دهد که توانمندی نظامی یک کشور چگونه و بر اساس چه مولفه هایی می‌تواند بر قدرت نرم کشور موثر باشد. در همین راستا یافته‌های پژوهش حاکی از این دارد با توجه به اینکه ماهیت قدرت نرم بر بنیاد جذابیت استوار می‌باشد لذا منابع مختلفی از یک دولت-ملت، قادر به نقش‌آفرینی در این شیوه قدرت خواهند بود. از همین رو ظرفیت نظامی یک کشور نیز می‌تواند به کمک شیوه‌هایی چون: کمک به آموزش نیروهای نظامی کشورهای خارجی، مشارکت در اعزام نیروهای حافظ صلح در مناطق تحت درگیری و منازعه، کمک به حفظ امنیت بین‌الملل در چارچوب چند جانبه‌گرایی، برگزاری یا حضور موثر در آخرین نمایشگاه‌های تجهیزات نظامی، حفظ و ارتقا روابط نظامی صلح‌آمیز با کشورهای نظام بین‌الملل و.. در قدرت نرم نقش فعالی را ایفا نماید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analysis and Survey of the Position of Military Capability in the Soft Power of Countries

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyyed Javad Mousavi Zare 1
  • Seyyed Hadi Zarghani 2
  • Mostafa Amir fakhrian 3
1 PhD candidate in Political Geography, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad,Mashhad.Iran
2 Associate Professor Political Geography, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad,Mshhad,Iran.
3 Asisstant, Geography and Urban Planning, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad,Mshhad,Iran
چکیده [English]

Extended abstract
Introduction
The term soft power entered the literature of political science, international relations, etc. since about 1989 with the help of Joseph Nye, and now, after three decades, it has become one of the official discourses in policy and scientific researches. In the same context, Nye, in addition to the term soft power, also introduces a new keyword called hard power. In connection with these concepts, he states that hard and soft power are both aspects of the ability to achieve desires through influencing the behavior of others. However, there is a difference between them, so that this distinction covers both the behavioral nature and feature of tangible of the resources. In this regard, in terms of behavioral nature, he bases hard power on coercion or bribery, and bases soft power on attract, accept, and persuade. Also, in terms of being tangible, Nye believes that soft power is rooted in intangible resources such as culture (those parts that appeal to others), political values (in cases where it is considered at home and abroad), and finally, foreign policy (if it seems legitimate and legal) (while military power and economic capacity are among the tangible resources of hard power). However, despite the passage of many years, the scientific evidence and the events of international politics reinforce the hypothesis that this view needs to be reconsidered because the nature of soft power is not limited to specific resources. In fact, it seems that a country's various resources including military power can also be used in this power by focusing on the true nature of soft power. To this end, the study seeks to how and based on what components a country's military capability can affect the country's soft power?
Methodology
The main question of this research is how and based on what components a country's military capability can affect the country's soft power? The hypothesis corresponding to this is also designed in such a way that it seems that a country's military uses attractiveness to influence soft power. To this end, the authors have used descriptive-analytic methods to answer this question. In this regard, first the nature of soft power and then the position of attractiveness in this method of power is examined and analyzed, and after that based on existing examples and scientific analysis in the style and context in which the military plays a role in soft power, will be mentioned. With these interpretations, the method of data collection in this research has been based on library resources as well as data analysis in the form of content analysis along with inductive reasoning.
Results and discussion
The points that Joseph Nye mentioned from the nature of soft power in a covert way, along with the existence of common keywords from the definitions of soft power, lead us to the point where the root of soft power is influenced by attractiveness. However, the concept of attractiveness, in a way, is reminiscent of the behavioral nature of soft power. But that quality may come from the content and facilities of a country or its style of behavior. Therefore, the nature of soft power is not limited to specific resources. Rather, resources or behaviors that can produce peace, respect, credibility, admiration, imitation, and role modeling, and in a word, attractiveness, tend to produce soft power. According the details raised, one of the current capacities based on attractiveness that can play a role in the soft power of countries is military power. In this regards, the findings show that a country's military capability can be achieved through measures such as helping to train foreign troops, participating in deploying peacekeepers in areas under conflict, helping to maintain international security in the framework of multilateralism, holding or participating effectively in the latest exhibitions of military equipment, technical assistance to nations involved in natural and human crises, maintaining and promoting peaceful military relations with the countries of the international system, scientific-peaceful cooperation of military, hosting the international competitions of the armies of the world, launching peaceful competitions among the world armed forces, attending and winning honors in the international competitions of the armies of the world, intelligence and creativity of the military commanders, etc., play an active role in soft power.
Conclusion
This study, considering the important position of military power in the calculations of a country's national power and the prominent role of soft power in domestic and foreign policy, sought to examine this question was that, how and based on what components a country's military capability can affect the country's soft power. In this regard, the results indicate that experts do not have a clear vision of the role of hard resources in general and military capacity in particular, in soft power. Nevertheless, scientific documents in the field of the nature of soft power and global events confirm the opposite of this claim. As the developments of the international system show that with the entrance of the concept of soft power in the field of policy-making, the armed forces in all parts of the world, especially in the West, have adopted and implemented this method of exercising power. With these interpretations, today one of the elements that can play a role in the framework of soft power is the military capabilities of a country, which is also achieved with the help of attractiveness and various methods. However, the point that should not be simply overlooked is the expression of the fact that an attractive military force, with the help of defense diplomacy, becomes an effective element in the mechanism of exercising soft power.
.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Soft power
  • nature
  • function
  • attractiveness
  • Military Power
  1. Nye, J. (2007). The benefits of soft power, Translate to Persian: Naser Baligh, Basij Studies Quarterly, 10(36), 107-115. [In Persian]
  2. Nye, J. (2008A). Soft Power : The Means to Success in World Politics, Translate to Persian: seyyed Mohsen Rouhani & Mahdi Zolfaghari,Tehran: Imam Sadiq University Press. [In Persian]
  3. Nye, J. (2008B). Power in the Global information Age: From Realism to Globalization, Translation: Saeed Mir Torabi, Tehran: Research Institute for Strategic Studies. [In Persian]
  4. Nye, J. (2014). The future of power, Translate to Persian: Ahmad Azizi,Tehran: Ney publications. [In Persian]
  5. Naeini, A.M. (2012). Principles and foundations of soft war, Tehran: Saqi Publishing. [In Persian]
  6. Parmar, I; Cox, M. (2010). Soft Power and US Foreign Policy,Theoretical, historical and contemporary perspectives, Translate to Persian: Alireza Tayyeb. Tehran: Strategic Studies Research Institute Press. [In Persian]
  7. Esmaili, M. (2017). Homegrown Pattern on Soft Power of the Islamic Republic of Iran, A model for empowering regional actors. Tehran: Mokhatab Publishing. [In Persian]
  8. Afzali, R; Zaki, Y; Dashti, M.H. (2018). Components of the soft power of the Islamic Republic of Iran and its capacities in the international arena from the perspective of experts, Quarterly Journal of Political Studies of the Islamic World, 8(2), 121-142. [In Persian]
  9. Asgari, M. (2010). A Critical Approach to Soft Power Theory, Defense Strategy Quarterly, 8(28), 61-86. [In Persian]
  10. Alhoyi Nazari, H; Mohammadi, A. (2015). Analysis of the Dimensions of the Principle of Goodwill in International Law in the Light of Judicial Procedure, International Law Review, 32(53), 99-126. [In Persian]
  11. Dehghani Firoozabadi, S.J; Zolfaghari, M. (2014). British Soft Power Analysis, Two Quarterly of Soft Power Studies, 4(11), 79-106. [In Persian]
  12. Mousavi Jashni, S.Al-S. (2014). Analytical Pattern of Soft Power of the Islamic Republic of Iran in the Islamic World, Quarterly of Political Thought in Islam, 1(1), 157-190. [In Persian]
  13. Qanbarloo, A. (2011). Soft Power Patterns in the Middle East, Quarterly of Soft Power Studies, 1(1), 7-36. [In Persian]
  14. Rahmani, M. (2015). Public Diplomacy and Foreign Policy, Quarterly of Strategic Studies of Globalization, 6(15), 63-89. [In Persian]
  15. Russett, B; Starr, H. (2002). World Politics: The Menu for Choice, Translate to Persian: Ali Omidi, Tehran: Ministry of Foreign Affairs Printing and Publishing Center. [In Persian]
  16. Farhadi, M; Moradian, M. (2008). Understanding Soft Power; (Looking at the Islamic Republic of Iran), Proceedings of the National Conference on Basij and Soft Power, Tehran: Imam Sadegh University Press. [In Persian]
  17. Mousavi Zare, S.J. (2020). Evaluation of effective variables on soft power and Design of countries soft power measurement model, doctoral dissertation(In the process of compiling), Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. [In Persian]
  18. Mousavi Zare, s.J; Zarghani, S. H; Amir Fakhrian, M. (2020). Survey and Analyze the Nature of soft power at the state-nation level,The scientific research paper,(In the process of compiling). [In Persian]
  19. Epstein, S; Mages, L. (2008). Public Diplomacy: A Review of Past Recommendations, Translation: Deputy Director of Research, Faculty and Research Institute of Information and Security, Tehran: Faculty and Research Institute of Information and Security. [In Persian]
  20. Mirzaei, M. (2015). Soft Power and Its Sources in the Mirror of Quranic Verses, Journal of Quranic Teachings, Razavi University of Islamic Sciences, 14(21), 55-78. [In Persian]
  21. Pir Mohammadi, S. (2016). Indicators of soft power of defense diplomacy of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Journal of Defense Policy, 24(95), 9-34. [In Persian]
  22. Alidosti Shahraki, G; Rahmatipour, L. (2018). The Relationship between Defense Diplomacy and Foreign Policy (A Theoretical Approach and a Policymaking Mechanism), The Journal of Defense Policy, 26(102), 105-138. [In Persian]
  23. Minaei, H; Hajiani, E; Dehghan, H; Jafarzadehpour, F. (2017). Evaluation of the Strategy of the Defense Diplomacy of the Islamic Republic of Iran in the Current Situation, Rahbord Quarterly, 26(83), 109-130. [In Persian]
  24. Alvand, M.S; Asgar Khani, A.M. (2014). Soft power functions in China's foreign policy, Iranian Research Letter of International Politics, 3(1), 1-25. [In Persian]
  25. Iran Technology Analysts Network. (2011). Conceptual survay Diplomacy of Science and Technology and Outlining the status quo in Iran, Tehran: vice-presidency For Science and Technology. [In Persian]
  26. Aghaei, S.D; Hosseyni, M. (2012). Prospect of India's soft power: opportunities and challenges, Strategic Studies Quarterly, 15(4), 199-228. [In Persian]
  27. Torabi, T. (2010). Contradictory approaches to soft warfare in the strategic action of the great powers, Scientific Journal of Security Horizons, 3(7), 37-70. [In Persian]
  28. Kazemi, A. (2011). Social Justice in the Domestic Policy of the Islamic State from the Perspective of the Holy Quran, Farhang-e-Pajuhesh Magazine, 4(10), 1-29. [In Persian]
  29. Hamshahri Online News. (2019). Details of the international games of the armies of the world, retrieved on August 4, 2019, news code: 450404, Available through: https://www.hamshahrionline.ir/news/450404/. [In Persian]
  30. Entekhab News. (2019). The meaning and concept of the visit of the Commander of the Pakistani Army to Tehran / General Javid's goal was to mediate between Iran and Saudi Arabia ?, Retrieved December 4, 2019, News ID: 516011, Available through: https: // www.entekhab.ir/en/news/516011/. [In Persian]
  31. Mashreq News. (2016). All we need to know about a "military attache " / From where to live to how to pay salaries and benefits, retrieved on November  2, 2016, News ID: 650908, Available through: https: / /www.mashreghnews.ir/ news/650908/. [In Persian]
  32. Mashreq News. (2018A). Putin's message for the participants in the military-technical exhibition of the army -2018, retrieved on August  21, 2018, news code: 886364, Available through: https://www.mashreghnews.ir/news/ 886364 /. [In Persian]
  33. Mashreq News. (2018B). Iran's readiness to participate in the great Russian military festival, retrieved on May 20, 2018, news code: 857078, Available through: https://www.mashreghnews.ir/news/857078. [In Persian]
  34. Asr Iran News Analytical Website. (2019). Russian Military Exhibition 2019 (+ Images), Retrieved July 12, 2019, News ID: 676707, Available via: https://www.asriran.com/en/news/ 676707 /. [In Persian]
  35. Borna News Agency. (2018). The 4th Asia-Pacific Congress of Military Medicine will be held in Tehran, retrieved on April  10, 2018, News ID: 695494, Available through: https://www.borna.news/. [In Persian]
  36. Sputting News. (2018). The opening of the International Games of the World Armies in Russia, retrieved on Jul 28, 2018, Available through: https://ir.sputniknews.com/world/201807283804513. [In Persian]
  37. Vuving, A.L. (2009). How soft power works, Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies, Paper presented at the American Political Science Association annual meeting Toronto, September 3, 2009.
  38. Ernst & Young company and the Skolkovo Institute for Emerging Market Studies. (2012). Rapid-growth markets soft power index, Available from: http://www.ey.com/GL/en/Issues/Driving-growth/Rapid-growth-markets-soft-power-index-Soft-power-variables.
  39. The British Council. (2017). Soft Power Today, Measuring the Influences and Effects, London: the Institute for International Cultural Relations at the University of Edinburgh.
  40. Cingiene, V; Damijonaitis, M; Komskiene, D. (2014). Soft power index extension: The case of the influence of Lithuanian basketball, Transformations in Business & Economics, 13(2A), 462-482.
  41. Haneş, N; Andrei,    (2015). Culture As Soft Power In International Relations, International conference The Knowledge-Based Organization, 21(1), 32-37. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1515/kbo-2015-0005.
  42. The Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces. (2007). Defence Attachés, Retrieved on: July 7, 2007, Available from: https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/38583/dcaf-backgrounder-defence-attaches.pdf.
  43. Forbes Media. (2018). The World's Most Powerful People, Retrieved on: May 8, 2018, Available from: https://www.forbes.com/powerful-people/list/.