نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
دکترای روابط بین الملل از دانشگاه تهران
عنوان مقاله [English]
As a result of to the colonial experience, there is very little overlap between geographical and identity boundaries in the Middle East countries. Most countries of the region like Iraq and Lebanon are a heterogeneous mix of different ethnicities, religions and races with a history of identical crises. This situation has led to the emergence and spread of sectarianism in society and the political structure of Middle Eastern countries. Hence the political structure of Iraq and Lebanon has been consolidated based on the identical distribution of power in which each identity base assumes a share of power. An important issue is the inefficiency of the identity-based power distribution system. The key question, therefore, is: why is the political structure based on identical power distribution in Iraq and Lebanon inefficient? To answer this question, using a comparative method, the mechanism of power sharing referring formal documents and constitutions of the two countries, six indexes of political efficiency, and also the reasons of inefficiency has been analyzed.