عنوان مقاله [English]
Territorial disputes including the Palestine issue are rooted in the spread of modern nationalism after the French Revolution based on the doctrine of the right to self-determination, in which each nation has the right and authority to form a nation-state within its territorial boundaries, based on the linguistic, historical, cultural and geographical evidences. Most of the contemporary territorial conflicts including the Palestine issue are not one-dimensional and in most cases have two tangible and symbolic geopolitical dimensions. The tangible aspect refers to the disputed objective element like existing land and its symbolic aspect indicates the identity disputes, the sense of belonging religious or racial groups to a land or their belief in the ownership of land by historical claims. Therefore, Palestinian peace proposals need to concentrate on hard or tangible and soft or symbolic geopolitical elements and challenges involved in the conflict. The last peace plans have failed to address these geopolitical features suitably and efficiently which have led to their failure. "Deal of century" as the last peace proposal which was made by U.S former administration have failed to address tangible and symbolic geopolitical challenges of Palestinian issue and is unable to make balanced and lasting recommendations on Palestinian geopolitical challenges.
The current research is qualitative, its approach is descriptive-analytic and it has used documentary research method in order to collect library data. In this regard, the authors have tried to use Persian, Arabic and Latin articles and books. In addition, we have utilized valid and related documents especially "Deal of century" Document which has been published by the U.S Department of State. After collecting data and categorizing them, the authors have attempted to analyze data based on the theory-based analysis method and used modern or critical geopolitical approach to explain the geopolitical challenges of the Palestinian peace plans with emphasis on "Deal of Century".
Results and Discussion
The findings of the research have been discussed in the three section. In the first section, we concentrate on the geopolitical importance of Palestine in both tangible and symbolic aspects. In the second part, the authors will explain geopolitical challenges of the previous peace proposals like Camp David Accords within the two main tangible and symbolic categories. In the last section, the article attempts to bring out the most significant geopolitical challenges of "Deal of century" which may lead to its failure.
Ignoring geopolitical components and challenges involved in the Palestinian disputes can be considered as the main and prominent feature of "Deal of century". This proposal pursues three main goals: Changing peace paradigm in favor of Israel, Marginalizing Palestinian forces in the conflict and ignoring the rights of the Palestinians and Changing US macro approach to the Palestinian-Israeli conflict.
In short, the most significant geopolitical challenges of "Deal of century" are: the failure of Palestinians to form a unified state with active sovereignty, the territorial division of the Palestinian state (even if it will be established), a completely unilateralist approach to supporting Israel, the ignorance of symbolic importance of Jerusalem for Muslims, the full granting of Jerusalem sovereignty to the Zionist regime, denial of Palestinian's right to return to their homeland as an authorized right of Security Council resolutions, paving the way for continuation of the Zionist regime's long-term settlement policy, deepening and intensifying border divisions, accelerating water disputes and hydro political conflicts in East Shamat and with neighbors, especially Syria and Jordan and marginalizing the Palestinian resistance. Therefore, this proposal is unable to address these tangible and symbolic challenges of the Palestinian issue efficiently and has failed to make progress in the way of reaching a lasting and beneficial solution for the conflict. Unity or divergence of Islamic states over the Palestinian issue and their support for the formation of an independent and unified Palestinian state, compromise or resistance approach of neighboring states, especially Egypt, Syria and Jordan, US support for Israel and united position of the Palestinian forces especially Fatah and Hamas can be named as the main and most significant geopolitical factors influencing the success or failure of Palestinian peace proposals including "Deal of century".