نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 - استادیار جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه پیامنور
2 - دانشآموخته کارشناسی ارشد جغرافیای طبیعی، دانشگاه خوارزمی
عنوان مقاله [English]
Tourism is one of important needs of human. This industry has witnessed the most growth and income in the world. Stagnancy or development of tourism in the countries depends on different factors. Iran has a lot of tourism attractions such as cultural, historical, religious, coastal, maritime, natural attractions and climate potentialities. Iran inscribed on the World Heritage List of UNESCO more of its heritages. Therefore, Iran is one of the countries which have some attractions in the world, especially in Middle East. But, Iran does not have suitable situation to attract international tourists in the region and world. Investigation the whys of this situation is the research goal? What obstacles have affected the development of the tourism industry in Iran? This research tries to answer this problem.
After considering research literature and background and designing theoretical framework, 8 factors obtained that consist of internal political factor, external political factor, security factor, cultural and religious factor, economic factor, institutional and organizational factor, infrastructural factor and finally touristic attractions factor.
This research tries to investigate effective obstacles to the development of tourism industry in Iran. The research method adopted here is descriptive-analytic and the data gather procedure is based on library and filed finding. The questionnaire is based on Likert scale and the questions number was 34. Questionnaire reliability is measured by Cronbach‘s coefficient alpha and it was 0.87. The Statistical sample is included academic experts, researchers, managers and executive experts of tourism organizations in Iran. 75 people were selected by simple random sampling method and the questionnaires were distributed among them. 67 people answered them. The data analyzed using SPSS by “one-way ANOVA analyze” and “one-sample T test” to measure the significance of factors and also Friedman test was used to rank factors.
Result and Discussion
The results of one-way ANOVA analyze showed that there are significant difference among factors. The results of T test are showed in table 1.
Table 1: The results of T test
Cultural and religious
After determining the effective factors on Iran’s tourism industry, factors were ranked by Friedman test. The results of Friedman test are showed in table 2.
Table 2: The results of Friedman test
Cultural and religious
The results showed that internal political factor, external political factor, economic factor, institutional and organizational factor and infrastructural factor have significant effect on the development of the tourism industry in Iran. But, security factor, cultural and religious factor and tourism attractions factor do not have significant effect on tourism industry as well as on the obstacles to the development of tourism. The output of Friedman test showed that internal political factor is the most effective factor with mean 6.65 on tourism industry as well as on the obstacles to the development of tourism and then institutional and organizational factor, external political factor, infrastructural factor and economic factor are located, respectively.