نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
- استادیار جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس
عنوان مقاله [English]
Smuggling which means importing and exporting goods in illegal form, is an essential challenge to the countries and has negative consequences on legal business, investment and occupation and faces national development with stagnation. Smuggling means moving illegal goods, services and human from one place to another or their entrance and exit from borders of a country. If the needed goods are not supplied and the possibility of their importing legally is not provided, the goods are supplied illegally and under-the-counter. In other words, need is an essential impulse which causes goods shifts in geographical places.
The main question of the research is that why smuggling is formed in a political unit (state)and what are the solutions? So the research is basic and theoretical, and since the research tries to know its nature by means of knowing the formation causes, production, distribution and consumption cycle and knowing the factors affecting development and deals with regular and systematic describing the smuggling and its features is descriptive- analytic. Data gathering procedure is based on library findings and also field findings are considered.
Results and Discussion
Smuggling has been with different goals during the times in settlement spaces. If the needed goods are not supplied legally and the possibility of their importing legally is not provided, the goods are supplied illegally and under-the-counter. Smuggling roots correspond with economic structure of the country, differences in development levels, and differences in goods fees in the destination and beginning and spatial needs in the countries of goods destination. The process and stages of goods smuggling are comprised of producer, buyer, smuggler, actors, stewards and coordinators in destination, tools of goods movements, purchase market, goods buyer in destination. Political, economic, cultural and social factors are driving forces and catalyst factors in smuggling of importing goods.
Increase in domestic production decreases the process of importing smuggling. The management of importing smuggling is possible based on knowing 3 facets of formation of importing smuggling, its stages and process from beginning to destination and also political, economic, cultural and social factors extending smuggling with systemic view. The impulse of the formed process is money and capital that its direction is the reversal of goods direction, and places which need goods, money and capital send to the places which produce goods to get the goods. Goods smuggling is halted in needed place in the following ways:
- Lack of money to get good in the places which need good;
- Decrease in domestic production;
- Unaffordability of contraband good in comparison with legally imported goods.
Each of the solutions to prevent smuggling is transient and its solutions are in the three forms mentioned above. On the other hand, with the permanent existence of capital in geographical spaces, the two last forms should be considered.