نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 استادیار گروه جغرافیای سیاسی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.
2 کارشناس ارشدجغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس
عنوان مقاله [English]
Strategies of great powers follow different variables. These powers are seeking stability and maintaining supremacy in all over the world and apply it through different tools. One of the reasons of sustainability sources and roots of universal powers is their presence and actions in global scope and, their interference and influence on global process. With the end of World War II, the US was raised as global effective power. Competition between the US and soviet led to form global blocks, in two scales. Therefore, two powers of soviet and the US as new players have followed geopolitical strategies. With departure of Britain from the east of Suez Canal in 1971, the US became active player in this part of the world. Iraqi Kurdistan as a part of this context was influenced by power currents. In this research the USA impact and its continuation in the next periods in relation to Iraqi Kurdistan have been studied, so that behavioral pattern of a great power in a geopolitical region is analyzed. Therefore, the current research aims at answering this question with a descriptive and analytical method: what are the impacts of the US strategy on changes of Iraqi Kurdistan from 1971 to 2014?
The current research is descriptive- analytic. Data gathering procedure is based on library findings. In the part of gathering from library sources (books, articles magazines, etc.) both internal and external sources have been used. Also in order to gather new data with respect to the relationship between the US and Iraqi Kurdistan reliable sites, which contain documents and action data of the US in Iraqi Kurdistan, have been referred. Since respective data was frequent and wide, information, which assessed research variables, was used and finally analyzed with qualitative method.
Result and discussion
The relationships between the US and northern Iraqi Kurdistan from 1971 to the end of this research is divided into two discrete periods as follows:
The first period: In this period the US actions in northern Iraqi Kurdistan had a pattern of limited and temporary intervention. With Britain decision for departing from the east of Suez Canal in 1971, the US was posed as substituted power. The relationship between the US and Kurdish people in this period followed several considerations:
Regional considerations specially related to Iran, Turkey, and Arab countries;
Relationships of part of Kurdish people in northern Iraq with Soviet Union;
Baath government and intensifying challenging and controversial behaviors;
USA focus on other geopolitical areas;
Iran and Iraq regional wars.
Regarding these issues, the US relationship with Kurdish people in northern Iraq did not have a wide pattern. This period continued until the Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait.
The second period: In this period Kurdish people relationships entered a new phase influenced by regional changes. Over time the US relationship with Kurdistan in northern Iraq was developed. Collection of changes which influenced this process was as follows:
Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait;
USA and its allies invasion of Kuwait and Iraq (Desert Storm War);
End of cold war;
The US geopolitical focus on South West Asia;
Forbidden flight area;
Set. 11 attacks 2001;
USA invasion of Iraq in 2003;
Islamic state of the Levant and Iraq (ISIS).
Influenced by these conditions, Iraqi Kurdistan relationships with the US were developed in three political, economical, and military security areas.
The result of the research showed that origin of Kurdish goals after World War II was focused on Kurdistan in northern Iraq and this idealism was against centralization of the Iraqi central government therefore, the highest stress among regional systems was applied against Kurdish people by the central government. From 1991 regarding global, regional, and local changes, Iraqi Kurdish people could obtain relative options in order to control settled space in Northern Iraq.
A series of developments in northern Iraq show that local idealism relying on trans- regional force during several decades could achieve its goals relatively and success degree of this idealism depend on the function of future changes of the region, the tolerance level of counties with Kurdish populations in neighboring Iraq and Kurdish people and also trans- regional powers actions.