مطالعه تطبیقی الگوی تأمین نیروی انسانی دفاعی کشور از طریق تحول از ارتش وظیفه‌ای به ارتش حرفه‌ای

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانش‌آموخته دکتری جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

انقلاب در امور نظامی و تحول در حوزه‌های دفاعی یکی از مهم‌ترین موضوعاتی است که سال‌های متمادی توجه سیاستمداران و استراتژیست‌های دفاعی نظامی را به خود جلب کرده است. تحول دفاعی در قرن بیستم عمدتاً در حوزه تسلیحات و فناوری نظامی مورد توجه بوده است و تحول در حوزه‌های ساختار و سازمان دفاعی در مقایسه با تحول در فناوری دفاعی روند بسیار کندی را سپری کرده بود  اما با ورود به قرن بیست و یکم تحول در ساختار و سازمان نیروهای مسلح کشورها در قالب تحول از ارتش‌های وظیفه‌ای به ارتش حرفه‌ای بطور وسیعی مورد توجه کشورهای جهان قرار گرفت بطوری‌که فقط در دهه اول قرن بیستم حدود 30 کشور ساختار و سازمان دفاعی نظامی خود را از سربازی اجباری و ارتش وظیفه‌ای به سربازی داوطلبانه و ارتش حرفه‌ای تغییر داده‌اند که در حال حاضر این تعداد از کشورها  به رقم حدود 100 رسیده‌اند. ایران نیز در زمینه تحول دفاعی سیاست‌های قابل توجهی در حوزه تسلیحات و فناوری نظامی تجربه کرده است اما در حوزه ساختار و سازمان نظامی تحول قابل توجهی را تجربه نکرده است. علت اصلی این عدم تحول در ایران فقر نظری و مطالعات  تطبیقی  و امکان‌سنجی‌ها در زمینه تحول از ارتش وظیفه‌ای  به ارتش حرفه‌ای بوده است. در این مقاله تلاش شده است با مطالعه تطبیقی تجربه کشورهای جهان و تبیین نوع و جایگاه آن‌ها در نظام تجول دفاعی جهان، سیاست‌ها و استراتژی‌های موفق کشورهای پیش رو در مورد ایران تبیین گردد. در این پژوهش که به روش توصیفی و تحلیلی انجام شده، تلاش شده است ابتدا وضعیت کشورهای جهان در نظام تحول دفاعی بررسی شده و فرآیند این تحولات پس از جنگ جهانی دوم تا کنون بررسی شود و سپس کشورها و ارتش‌های موفق در زمینه تحول دفاعی از ارتش وظیفه‌ای به ارتش حرفه‌ای مورد بررسی قرار گرفته و ضمن مقایسه موقعیت ایران با کشور منتخب که 10 کشور می‌باشد سیاست‌ها و راهبردهای موفق این کشورها که قابلیت بومی‌سازی در ایران را دارند، تبیین شده‌اند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Comparative Study of the Pattern of Human Resource Forces Defending the Country through the Transformation military service to the professional army

نویسنده [English]

  • kamel Moniri
PhD in Political Geography, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Extended abstract
Introduction
Military power and superiority of countries throughout the history and civilization of human beings have been an important issue in the survival and longevity of countries and powers during different historical periods. But this competition, which has been especially concerned by the political and military rulers of the countries during the post-cold war, has been accompanied by extensive developments in the field of organization structure. These developments, in addition to the transition from the army to the professional army and the deterioration of their structures, have become more effective in practice. The transition from the military has been more noticeable in countries that have geopolitical conflicts. The Islamic Republic of Iran, because of its geopolitical conflicts, needs to keep pace with global developments in the field of military and defense. In this research assumption is that it is possible to draw a clear picture of the process transition from the functional army to the professional army in Iran. in fact, to transition from the functional army to the professional army, a set of successful countries and patterns of countries that have such an experience is necessary, but the logical way is that to develop a comprehensive and comprehensive roadmap, it is necessary to capture and domestication successful models and patterns of successful countries.
Methodology
The present research is descriptive - analytic and from the perspective of data gathering procedure is based on the library findings, as well as interviews with experts. Therefore, it is tried to assess the situation of transition from the functional army to the professional army in the sample, the situation of the countries, its methods in transition from the army duty to the professional army, and demographic information of each country in the field of human resources of the countries discussed.
Research findings
The findings of this research are related to the following issues and axes:

The study of the latest resources and scientific information about the military transformation of countries in the world.
The explanation the strengths and the most important influential parameters of leading countries in the field of transformation from functional army to professional army.
The explanation of the most important role models of transformation from functional army to professional army is based on the scientific study of research.
Identification the non - military variables affecting the process of transformation and defensive innovation through comparative study of the structure and organization of the countries of the world.

 
Analysis
Benchmarking of a successful and developed structure is considered the first step in achieving the goal of a large and complex revolution. In the present study, researchers have attempted to identify the dominant patterns in the defense and military structure and introduce them to the military service in order to develop native speakers. At present, there is an active pattern in the world that each of the relative merits in the formulation of the national strategy brings the army to the professional army. These patterns are: 1) Countries without mandatory military service (Professional army); 2) Countries with obligatory military service (from 6 months to 10 years); 3) Countries with non-combat service or without weapon; 4) Countries with voluntary and voluntary service combinations; 5) Countries with selected services in the present study.
Turkey, Germany, Russia, Pakistan, China and the United States, which have followed a formal and written plan in the transition from the functional army to the professional army, have achieved good results. On the other hand, the conditions and challenges of the armed forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran have been studied in the process of army transformation and task - oriented forces to the professional army. The study of the situation and the strategies of the countries suggests that the defense transformation of these countries helped them to preserve and protect their interests, while the professional army has contributed to the use of new military instruments and the reduction of their military defense costs in expanding the scope of geopolitical domain.
Conclusion
The result of the research suggests that defensive transformation in each field                    without considering the ability of other countries and successful working patterns cannot be achieved easily. The countries of the world have gained an important part of development and development in their armies for observing the defensive plans of other countries. Therefore, competition in the structure and defense models of other countries is as follows: 1) In the economic sphere defense economic planning is necessary. Turkey, Pakistan economic management in the field of defense is effective for Iran; 2) Defensive Manpower Management: in this area, countries that are aligned in terms of population growth and workforce potentials can be considered as political - military strategists (Germany, Turkey); 3) The field of structure and organization: in this area the countries that are evolving from the functional army to the professional army and recently implemented this strategy can provide a suitable model for Iran (Turkey and Russia); 4) The area of equipment and technology: in this area of countries where modern equipment and technology are embedded in the organization, countries such as China, Russia, America and Germany can be a good example for Iran.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Defense Transformation System
  • Professional Army
  • Conscription Army
  • Professional Soldier
  • Revolution in military affairs
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