تأثیر اختلافات کشورهای عضو اتحادیه اروپا بر جایگاه این اتحادیه در نظام جهانی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانشیار روابط بین‌الملل، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی

چکیده

 



اتحادیه اروپا یکی از مهمترین و منسجم‌ترین اتحادهای متشکل از دولت‌ها در ابعاد سیاسی‌ـ ‌اقتصادی است که پس از جنگ جهانی دوم گام‌های زیادی در جهت همگرایی و هماهنگی بیشتر و همچنین گسترش قلمرو خود برداشته است. اگرچه این اتحادیه مفهوم و برداشت جدیدی از همکاری و همگرایی میان دولت‌ها را وارد ادبیات روابط بین‌الملل نمود، ولی به واقع برای فهم جایگاه آن در نظام جهانی باید با تامل بیشتری نگریست. دو هدف عمده در این پژوهش دنبال شده است: نخست اختلاف نظرهای صورت‌گرفته میان اعضای اتحادیه اروپا چه تأثیری بر وضعیت فعلی این اتحادیه در نظام جهانی داشته است؟ و دوم، بررسی تداوم اختلاف‌نظر و تعارض دیدگاه‌ها میان اعضاء چه اثری بر آینده راهبردی و جایگاه اتحادیه اروپا که در نظام چندقطبی برای آن متصور شده‌اند خواهد داشت؟ پاسخ موقت به پرسش فوق بدین‌گونه خواهد بود که وجود اختلاف و تعارض دیدگاه‌ها میان اعضای اتحادیه اروپا در مسائل مختلف داخلی و بین‌الملی، این اتحادیه را با عدم هویت کارکردی مواجه و به سبب آن نقش و جایگاه استراتژیک آن در آینده جهانی را با تردیدهایی روبرو ساخته و آن را در سطح یک قدرت اقتصادی باقی خواهد گذارد.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Impacts of Disagreements Between the EU Member States on the Union’s Position in the World System

نویسنده [English]

  • Seyed Hassan Mirfakhraee
Associate Professor of International Relations, Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
European Union (EU) is one of the most important and coherent state-based unions in both political and economic dimensions, that has taken great strides in developing convergence and coordination and also in expanding its sphere of influence after the World War II; Although it has brought a new concept of collaboration and convergence in the literature of international relations, more attention is needed to understand its position in the global system. In this paper two main objectives will be followed. First, what are the impacts of disagreements among members of the EU on its current position in the world system? And what would be the impacts of continuation of disagreements among the members of EU on its position, and also on its strategic future?
 
Methodology
The research methodology is descriptive-analytic, and data gathering procedure is based on library findings. Data analysis is also based on qualitative method.
 
Research Findings
This paper initially discusses the convergence between member states of EU in the context of functionalism and neo-functionalism theories, and subsequently, the impacts of continuation of disagreements among the members of EU on intraregional and international matters, and also on its strategic future. The first intra-union matter is the disagreements between different wings in the union about common foreign and security policy (CFSP) in response to the question that how much the member states would put aside their independent foreign policy and adopt the united foreign policy. The other important subject here is the rate of effectiveness between great powers and weak-newcomer members in decision making. The second considerable matter is the eastern enlargement and joining new members such as Turkey that has increased the disagreements between member states. Structural dilemma, which has been with the EU since its foundation, is the next issue that has made difficulties. Recent Financial crisis is the other controversial factor that has made some disagreements between member states notably economic powers. Refugee crisis is the other controversial factor that has damaged the convergence of EU member states. Lastly, by a brief review of controversial issues of international matters, the impacts of these disagreements and opposing views on EU’s strategic position would be addressed and accordingly the EU in the domain of international politics should move on the base of “common” foreign policy not on a ”united” one.
 
Conclusion
Eventually, its considered that disagreements and opposing views among the members of European Union in different international and internal issues such as disagreements in common foreign and security policy, eastern enlargement and joining new members, recent financial crisis, structural dilemma, and lastly the refugee crisis, has faced EU do not have a functional identity, and so, its strategic role and position in the future world is in doubt and it will just remain as an economic power.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • regionalism
  • Divergence
  • Treaty of Lisbon
  • European Union
  • Global System