عنوان مقاله [English]
The collapse of the Soviet Union that constructed a wide state for 70 years old caused significant changes in the world geopolitical map. Formation of central Asia Including; Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan was a part of these changes. The region that was a part of the Soviet Union’s territory had attracted less attention. The important region that is located in the Eurasia has great geopolitics, geo-economic, geo-culture potentialities, and this situation causes Iran notice to this region. Central Asia after independence is converted to the subject of global actor’s rivalries. However, the issue and question about this region is: “why after more than twenty years independence these countries have not yet been able to achieve an effective and successful integration, and even there are no any hopes. Nonetheless, researches that have been done about integration in Central Asia have been done only in the form of the ECO and fewer researches are about Central Asia.
The hypothesis is that the reasons of this problem in the Central Asian are regional and trans-regional problems. The theoretical model to classify these factors is the theoretical framework of Spiegel and Cantori. This model is developed based on regional factors like the nature of integrity (political, economic and social), the nature of countries communications, measure of power between them and the structure of relations and effective trans- regional factors that affect regional events.
This paper tries to find an answer to this question: “Why in Central Asia, in spite of common interests and needs, a successful regional integration has not been formed yet? To answer this question, the research methodology adopted is descriptive - analytical method. Therefore, first this study tries to clarify the concept and characteristics of regional integration and cooperation and then tries to analyze barriers of regional integration and cooperation in Central Asia.
Results and discussion
Nowadays, countries cannot solve their problems lonely, and cooperation with each other is vital that Central Asian states are not exempted from this issue, but countries of this sensitive geopolitical region have not been successful to create an efficient cooperation. To understand the reasons of this issue, the theory of Cantori and Spiegel was used and it was characterized that regional and trans-regional obstacles are the main reasons.
Research findings demonstrate that common interests and needs besides finding an easier solution for problems show the necessity of establishing a regional integration in Central Asia. Also, main reasons that prevent countries of region to achieve the regional integration are regional obstacles like rival economies, competition of countries leaders, undemocratic regimes, boundary problems, different level of countries in terms of power and economic potential, and presence of trans-regional powers like U.S, Russia and China that all of them try to attract countries of the region to cooperate with themselves.