تئوری‌های توطئه در فرهنگ سیاسی کشورهای خاورمیانه عربی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 - استادیار علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه شاهد

2 - کارشناس ارشد جامعه شناسی انقلاب اسلامی، دانشگاه شاهد

چکیده

تئوری‌های توطئه، نوعی تجزیه و تحلیل تک علتی حوادث مختلف حیات بشری بر اساس توطئه است. این نوع تجزیه و تحلیل در فرهنگ‌های سیاسی مختلف به میزان متفاوتی دیده می‌شود. هدف اصلی مقاله حاضر شناخت جایگاه، ارکان و شواهدی از تئوری‌های توطئه در فرهنگ سیاسی منطقه خاورمیانه عربی است. یافته‌های این پژوهش نشان می‌دهد که این نوع از تجزیه و تحلیل‌ها در کنار سایر مؤلفه‌ها، یکی از مؤلفه‌های مهم و تأثیرگذار فرهنگ سیاسی خاورمیانه عربی بوده و ناشی از علل مختلف سیاسی و اجتماعی است. تئوری‌های توطئه در این منطقه به‌نوبه خود دارای ارکان سه‌گانه توطئه‌گران، توطئه‌باوران و مبانی و مفروضاتی است که سعی شده ضمن شناسایی و تشریح آنها، برای هرکدام شواهد و مصادیقی با استفاده از روش مطالعات اسنادی و با مراجعه به منابع قابل دسترس ذکر شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Conspiracy Theory in the Arabic Middle East Political Culture

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zahed Gaffari Hashjin 1
  • Fatemeh Zahra Ghalandari 2
1 - Assistant Professor of Political Sciences, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran
2 - M.A of Sociology of Islamic Revelotion, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
The present paper tries to investigate conspiracy theory in the Arabic Middle East political culture. The Middle East is the significant and effective region in the world. It is the first birthplaces of primary human civilizations and great religions. The Arabic Middle East political culture has different variants like conspiracy theory. The present paper is an attempt to provide answers to three questions about the Middle East conspiracy theory. Conspiracy theory is a method to analyze the role of conspiracy in events and incidents. According to this definition, the only cause of events is conspiracy, and the role of other reasons in events is ignored. Conspiracy theory is a part of political culture of Arab world and this analysis method has had strong impact on the thoughts and lives of people of this region. This theory has its components, elements that it can be provided some instances and evidences for each of them.   
 
Methodology
This paper seeks an answer to this primary question: “what is the significance, principles and evidences of conspiracy theory in the Arabic Middle East political culture?” This paper also has three secondary questions: “what do the political culture and conspiracy theory mean?”, “where is the status of conspiracy theory in the Arabic Middle East political culture?”, and “what are the principles of conspiracy theory in the Arabic Middle East?” The research methodology adopted is documentary method, and data gathering procedure is library findings.
 
Results and discussion
Research findings show that this type of analysis along with other variants is one of the most important and influential principles of the political culture of these communities. This matter is resulted from different political and social causes. According to the importance of this issue, experts have tried to investigate the causes of growing and developing of this phenomenon in the Middle East. Some people like Marvin Zonis, Josef Craig, Daniel Pipes, and Matthew Gray have worked about this matter. They have tried to show the role of this matter in analysis of events. Finally, this article tried to explain three principles of conspiracy theory that includes conspirators, believers who believe in conspiracy, and principles of assumptions and analysis.
 
Conclusion
Research findings show that conspiracy theory is one of the main variants of the Arabic Middle East political culture. This type of analysis is a pattern to analyze region events. This type of analysis is known in this region and affects relations of government and society, human and political groups in the internal and external facets. Critical conditions, intervention of foreign powers and political despotism are the main factors creating these types analysis in the Arabic Middle Easte political culture.  
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Conspiracy theory
  • Political Culture
  • the Arabic Middle East
  • Conspirators
  • Conspiracy believers