تأمّلی در موضوع علم جغرافیا

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران

2 دانشیار فلسفه، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

3 گروه جغرافیای سیاسی دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

بر اساس تعریف علمای علم منطق، موضوعِ یک علم عبارت از آن چیزی است که در آن علم از احوال و عوارض ذاتی و بی­واسطۀ آن بحث می­شود. عوارض ذاتی به آن دسته از صفات اشیاء و پدیده­ها گفته می­شود که مستقیماً از ذات پدیده یا شیء برمی­خیزند و در موجودیّت خود نیازمند هیچ واسطه­ای نمی­باشند. به‌طور مثال، صفاتی چون رشد و تغذیه در زمرۀ صفات ذاتی موجودات جاندار بوده و مستقیماً به ذات آن­ها وابسته­اند. همچنین صفت نطق(تفکّر) در انسان، صفتی است که به‌طور مستقیم به ذات انسان وابسته است. در حالی­که وقتی به صفت نویسنده در مورد انسان اشاره می­شود، این صفت با واسطۀ صفت تفکّر و نطق به انسان نسبت داده می­شود. صفاتی نظیر وحدت و کثرت، حادث و قدیم، مجرّد و مادّی و نظایر این­ها، در زمرۀ صفات ذاتی هستی به​شمار می­روند امّا صفاتی چون سنگین یا سبک، سرد یا گرم جزو صفات باواسطۀ هستی محسوب می­شوند؛ زیرا هستی ذاتاً سنگین یا سبک، سرد یا گرم و ... نیست و این صفات صرفاً از طریق واسطه­ای به نام جسم به هستی نسبت داده می­شود. مطابق بیان فوق آن دسته از علوم که به مطالعۀ پدیده­ها و اشیاء حقیقی که واجد ذات هستند، می­پردازند؛ در زمرۀ علوم حقیقی قرار می­گیرند؛  نظیر فلسفه، ریاضیات و منطق. روشن است این دسته از علوم به دلیل پرداختن به هستی­های دارای ذات، واجد موضوع می­باشند. امّا آن گروه از علومی که به مطالعه در احوال پدیده­های فاقد ذات می­پردازند، جزء علوم اعتباری محسوب می­شوند؛ نظیر علوم اجتماعی و از جمله علم جغرافیا. در علومی نظیر جامعه­شناسی و جغرافیا، پدیده­هایی همچون جامعه، کشور، ملّت، دولت، سازمان­ها و نهادها، فضاها و نظایر آن­ها که پدیده­هایی برساخته و اعتباری بوده و فاقد ذات هستند، مورد مطالعه قرار می­گیرند. شکّی نیست که پدیده­های فاقد ذات، به طریق اولی فاقد صفات ذاتی نیز هستند و از آنجا که در تعریف موضوع یک علم، پرداختن به صفات ذاتی پدیدۀ مورد مطالعۀ آن علم شرط اصلی است، لذا با فقدان ذات و ایضاً صفات ذاتی، به​خودی خود موضوع نیز منتفی خواهد شد. بر این اساس می­توان گفت علم جغرافیا به​دلیل مطالعه پیرامون پدیده­های فاقد ذات (اعتباری)، فاقد موضوع می­باشد. هدف اصلی این مقاله تحقیق و بررسی پیرامون این مسئله است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Reflection on the Subject of Geography

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahmood Vasegh 1
  • Marjan Badiei Azandahi 1
  • Lotfollah Nabavi 2
  • ahad mohamadi 3
1 Assistant Professor of Political Geography, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
2 Associate Professor of Philosophy, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
3 Political Geography Department of University of tehran
چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract     
Introduction
In science of Logic, a science subject include thing that in this the science will be discussed of conditions and accidents the essential and it’s immediate. Accidents the essential to those attributes of things and phenomena is said that directly arises from the essence of the phenomenon or things and in its existence not need no intermediary. Though relying on the “subject” for the definition and classification of sciences contain of ancient and long history, but it should be noted that the application of this criteria is not effective for defining all the Sciences; because the definition a science based on subject, when possible that first, the science Intended been components the real sciences and phenomena under the study of Its, be eligible essence and characteristics (accidents) essential. Second, Sciences which are defined and classified based on the subject, at least have three basic characteristics that include: 1. their sentences and problems being universal 2. Being necessary the relations between subjects and predicates of their propositions 3. Being demonstrative. For this reason, those sciences which first their under investigation phenomena are unreal and secondly the above-mentioned three characteristics are lacking, cannot be based on the subject, defined. This category of science that are known as the "Credit Sciences", should be based on other criteria, including based on teleo and method, defined and categorized. In other words, the definition of the subject, merely special the real sciences is such as philosophy, logic and mathematics and does not include credit sciences such as the social sciences and including geography. And maintaining the integrity of the social sciences as well as geography through the teleo and its function, eligible reasonable benefits and offered more functionality of define subject is for these disciplines and can rescue this sciences of  current philosophical the stagnation and crisis.
Methodology
The present study due to the nature of philosophy and own logical, is among the fundamental and theoretical research. This study is based on descriptive and analytical method (logical) and its analysis is done based on logical reasoning and arguments. Therefore, discussions and matters from this series of documentaries and library are considered.
Result and discussion
Based on research conducted in the subject science of Geography, it can be said: geography is among the sciences without subject. Because the subject can be raised only in those sciences that phenomena and things of the study of those sciences, essence eligible and consequently, be essential characteristics eligible and this feature there is only the real science that them investigated phenomena independent of the will of man, are available. Accordingly, because Sciences unreality (Sciences credit) such as social sciences, such as geography, unreal phenomena and man-made (credit) they can read, that are lacks essence, cannot they Have an subject because the subject when  have mean that first be essence in the work and secondly considered essential characteristics. Since the main field of the study science of Geography is considered to be credit phenomenon of space and we know Geographical space is phenomenon lacks essence and essential characteristics and therefore the science of geography which is engaged in the study of such phenomenon cannot be eligible subject.
Conclusion
Given that the subject a science include one thing in which science does discussion about the accidents and essential characteristics that, therefore objective Sciences are the sciences which the study of Its phenomena, to be essence eligible and then characteristics (accidents) essential. Also propositions these sciences, is universal, necessary and permanent and this sciences will be a demonstrational but geography because it phenomenon case the study of its (space and time) is lacks essence and statements It is personal therefore above features will not have. So of logical point of view, geography cannot be the subject and any attempt to define Geography objective this string will be faced with a logical contradiction. Since the geography is empirical, social, credit science and placed in rows Sciences practical and functional and has the nature of the problem solving not only need to have does not the subject but also thematic objective to geography, has been caused lack of dynamism and caught this knowledge in an identity crisis and philosophical. So to define of geography must has rely on its functional the nature because the definition of functional and teleo-oriented, for Geography will enhance authority and position and Its role in various fields of political, social, economic and macroeconomic planning development, planning and formulation of comprehensive national strategies and transnational over the current situation. It can therefore be defined Geography in terms of teleo and function in the form knowledge production and management space.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Essence
  • Essential characteristics
  • Subject of science
  • Real sciences
  • Credit Sciences
  • Teleo of sciences
  • Geography