تحلیل ژئوپلیتیک؛ بازنمایی فضاهای ترس در سینما

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادجغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

2 دانشآموخته جغرافیای سیاسی،دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

چکیده

حس مکان یکی از مفاهیم جغرافیایی است که در ژئوپلیتیک روزمره حضوری آشکار دارد. علاوه بر عوامل جغرافیایی عناصر روانشاسانه و عوامل اجتماعی مختلفی نیز در شکل­گیری حس مکان نقش دارند. ترس یکی از عناصر روانشناسانه­ای است که نه تنها برای تعریف حس مکان، بلکه جهت تحلیل کارکرد فضای جغرافیایی کاربرد دارد.  به​عبارت دیگر، ترس یکی از عوامل بازتاب دهنده تأثیر جغرافیا در زندگی روزمره انسان است که خلق یک جغرافیای تخیلی به نام فضاهای ترس را در پی دارد. همه انسان­ها به‌واسطه تجربه شخصی یا بازنمایی رسانه با فضاهای ترس آشنا هستند. یکی از رسانه­هایی که در بازنمایی، بازتولید و بازتعریف فضاهای ترس نقش دارد سینما است. از نظر جغرافیایی، این بازنمایی­ها که در موقعیت­های گوناگون و با اهداف و کارکردهای متفاوتی صورت می­پذیرند در شکل­گیری ادراک فضایی و حس مکانِ انسان نسبت به فضا/مکان تأثیرگذار است. یکی از بحث­های مهم در هر دوی جغرافیای انسانی انتقادی و ژئوپلیتیک انتقادی کارکرد بازنمایی­ها و تصویرسازی­های سینما از احساساتی نظیر امنیت، امید و ترس در فرآیندهای جغرافیایی است. مقاله حاضر با ارائه یک تحلیل ژئوپلیتیک از نقش سینما در بازنمایی "فضاهای ترس"، تأثیر این امر بر فرآیندهایژئوپلیتیک و فضایی را مورد بررسی قرار می​دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Geopolitical Analysis: Representation of Spaces of Fear ‎in Cinema

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zahra Ahmadypour 1
  • Yunes Rashidi 2
1 Full Professor of Political Geography, TarbiatModares University, Tehran, Iran
2 Ph.D Graduated of Political Geography, TarbiatModares University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract
Intrduction
Sense of place is a geographical concept that shows its presence in everyday geopolitics. In addition to geographical factors, psychological and sociological elements help in shaping the sense of place. “Fear” as a psychological element not only can be used for defining sense of place, but also can help us in analyzing functions of geographical spaces/places. In other words, “fear” is one of the reflective factors in humans’ everyday life that could result in the creation of “Imaginative Geographies” that we know as “Spaces of Fear”.
Methodology
Through the use of a descriptive-analytical method and a critical analysis’ framework, this study intended to find how space and place is represented in cinema and what are the consequences of these representations for geographical space/place.
Findins
Because of personal experiences or representations in media, most humans are familiar with the concept of spaces of fear. In this framework, cinema is a media that plays an important role in representation, (re)definition and (re)production of spaces of fear. From a geographical perspective, these representations occur in various situations and for different goals and functions and they can shape humans’ perceptions about space and place. Therefore, the effect of cinema on the representation and illustration of emotions such as hope, fear and even (in)security which always intervene in geographical processes has become the subject of important debates in both critical human geography and geopolitics.
Analysis
Representation of space in the media is a subject that interacts with human life. Parts of these actions focus on spatial feelings that shape the “Sense of Place”. Everyday experiences in geographical space/place most of the times combine with images that are depicted by media platforms such as cinema, TV and etc. and give meaning to these spatial feelings. So, we are witnessing attitudes which are products of desire, fear, security and hope and help create imaginative geographies like Spaces of Hope, Spaces of Security and spaces of fear. In this article our research concentrated on Spaces of Fear and showed that representations of geographical spaces could result in different consequences. On the one hand, geopolitical representations can be used by various powers, organizations and states for reaching certain aims like madding fear among enemies, propaganda and even satisfying people for acceptance of policies. On the other hand, these representations could be a tool for shaping resistance geopolitics and developing awareness among citizens about spatial processes in all around the world. In this framework cinema has a special role because it narrates stories that are very tangible and help manipulate human’s sense of place. In other words, representations of spaces of fear in cinema is a crucial concept that plays an important role in distinguishing borders between “us” and “others” or diminishing gaps between people, spaces and prospections.
Conclusion
In this article we present a geopolitical analysis of the role of cinema in the representation of spaces of fear and try to estimate its effects on geopolitical and spatial processes. Our research indicates that although representations in cinematic films like “Crash” and “Minority Report” sometimes try to expose negative points of spatial policies and otherness in geographical space, but in common cinema was unsuccessful in decrease gaps that help to produce “us” versus “others”. In other words, despite of the productive role of cinema in expanding knowledge among people, it helps in creating and spreading imaginative geographies that just create distance between “our spaces” and “other’s spaces”. In summary, geopolitical representations of spaces of fear of this type have mostly negative rather than positive effects on geographical spaces.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Media
  • Imagination
  • Representation
  • Cinema
  • Spaces of fear.‎

1-                  Alexandria, Stafford (2015), Rising Terror Group in The Middle East and North Africa, Nova Publisher.

2-                  Atton, Chris. (2008). Alternative media theory and journalism practice. Digital media and democracy: Tactics in hard times, 213-228.

3-                  Bakunin, Mikhail. (1971). Bakunin on Anarchy: Selected Works by the Activist-Founder of World Anarchism. Edited, Translated and with an Introduction by Sam Dolgoff.   New York: Vintage Books.

4-                  Baudrillard, Jean. (2002). the Spirit of Terrorism. Trans. C. Turner. London: Verso

5-                  Boyd-Barrett, Oliver (1977). Media imperialism: towards an international framework for the analysis of media systems. Mass communication and society: 116–135.

6-                  Chatterton, Paul. (2010). Seeking the urban common Furthering the debate on spatial justice. City. Vol:14, No:6. PP 625-628.

7-                  Christophers, Brett. (2009). Envisioning Media Power: On Capital and Geographies of Television. Plymouth, UK:  Lexington Books.

8-                  Claire Sponster. (1992). Beyond the Ruins: The Geopolitics of Urban Decay and Cybernetic Play. Science Fiction Studies. Vol: 20, No:2. Pp 251–65.

9-                  Davis, Mike. (2002). Dead Cities. New York:  New Press.

10-              Der Derian, James. (2002). Cyberspace as Battle Space: The New Virtual Alliance of the Military, the Media and the Entertainment Industries. In: J. Armitage and J. Roberts (eds.) Living with Cyberspace. London: Continuum. Pp 61–71.

11-              Dimendberg, E. (1997). ‘From Berlin to Bunker Hill: Urban Space, Late Modernity and Film Noir in F. Lang and J. Losey, M’, Wide Angle 19(4): 62–93.

12-              Dittmer, Jason, & Gray, Nicholas. (2010). Popular Geopolitics 2.0: Towards New Methodologies of the Everyday. Geography Compass, 4. Pp 1664-1677.

13-              Dixon, Deborah; Zonn, Leo and Bascom, Johnathon. (2008). Posting the Cinema: Reassessing Analytical Stances Toward a Geography of Film. In: Lukinbeal , Chris and Zimmermann, Stefan (Editors) . The Geography of Cinema – A Cinematic World. Mainz: Franz Steiner Verlag.

14-              Dodds, Klaus. (2007). Geopolitics: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

15-              Flint, Colin. (2006). Introduction to Geopolitics. Abingdon: Routledge

16-              Graham, Stephen. (2004). Cities as Strategic Sites: Place Annihilation and Urban Geopolitics. In: Graham, Stephen(Ed). Cities, war, and terrorism: towards an urban geopolitics. London: Blackwell. Pp 31-53.

17-              Gregory, Derek. (1994). Geographical Imaginations. Cambridge,MA: Blackwell

18-              Gregory, Derek. (2004). The Colonial Present. Blackwell. Oxford

19-              Harley, J.B. (1988). Maps, Knowledge, and Power. In: Cosgrove, Denis and Daniels, Stephen. (Editors). The Iconography of Landscape: Essays on the symbolic representation, Design and Use of Past Environments. New York: Cambridge University Press.

20-              Harvey, David. (2009). Social Justice and the City. Revised Edition. Athens, Georgia: The University of Georgia Press.

21-              Harvey, David. (2012). Rebel Cities:From the Right to the City to the Urban Revolution.. New York: Verso.

22-              Herzog, Lawrence A. (2006). Return to The Center: culture, public space, and city building in a global era. Texas: University of Texas Press.

23-               Jarvis, Brian. (2006). New York, 9/11. In: Lindner, Christoph (Ed). Urban Space and Cityscapes: Perspectives from modern and contemporary culture. London: Routledge.

24-              Kitchin, Rob and Kneale, James. (2002). Lost in Space: geographies of science fiction. London: Continuum.

25-              Marcuse, Peter. (2004). The ‘‘War on Terrorism’’ and Life in Cities after September 11, 2001. In: Graham, Stephen(Ed). Cities, war, and terrorism: towards an urban geopolitics. London: Blackwell. Pp 263-275.

26-              McQuire, Scott. (2008). The Media City: Media, Architecture and Urban Space. Los Angeles: SAGE Publications.

27-              Mendieta, Eduardo. (2011). The spatial metaphorics of justice On Edward W. Soja. City. Vol: 15, NO: 1. FEBRUARY 2011. Pp 81-84.

28-              Morley, David. (2000). Home Territories: Media, mobility and identity. London: Routledge.

29-              Pain, Rachel. and Smith, SusanJ. (2008). Fear: critical geopolitics and everyday life, Aldershot: Ashgate.

30-              Pain, Rachel. (2009). Globalized fear? Towards an emotional geopolitics. Progress in Human Geography. 33(4). Pp. 466–486.

31-              Palu, Helle. (2011). The politics of visual representation: Security, the US and the ‘war on terrorism’. In Stocchetti, Matteo and Kukkonen, Karin (Eds). Images in Use: Towards the critical analysis of visual communication. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

32-              Plato. (2005). the Republic. Tehran: Elmi and Farhangi Press [in Persian]

33-              Rampton, Sheldon. and Stauber, John. (2003). Weapons of Mass Deception: The Uses of Propaganda in Bush’s War on Iraq. London: Robinson.

34-              Routledge, Paul. (1996). Critical geopolitics and terrains of resistance. Political Geography, 15(6-7), 509-531.

35-              Said, Edward. (1978). Orientalism. New York: Pantheon Books.

36-              Shapiro, Michael J.(1988). The Politics of Representation: Writing Practices in Biography, Photography,and Policy Analysis. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

37-              Shapiro, Michael J. (2009). Cinematic Geopolitics. London: Routledge.

38-              Shakooei, Hosein. (2003). New Ideas in Philosophy of Geography: Vol 2: Environmental Philosophies and Geographical Schools. Tehran: Gitashenasi [in Persian].

39-              Soja, Edward. (2010). Seeking Spatial Justice. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

40-              Tonkis, Fran. (2011). Spatial causes, social effects A response to Soja. CITY. VOL: 15, NO: 1. FEBRUARY 2011. Pp 85-86.

 

Filmography

41-              A History of Violence. (2005). Directed by: Cronenberg, David. New Line Cinema.

42-              Avatar. (2009). Directed by: Cameron, James. 20 Century Fox.

43-              Cinematographe. (1896).  Directed by: Lumière, Auguste and Louis.

44-              City of God. (2002). Directed by: Meirelles, Fernando Ferreira. O2 Filmes and Globo Filmes.

45-              Dr. Strangelove: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb. (1964). Kubrick, Stanley. Columbia Pictures.

46-              Eastern Promises. (2007). Directed by: Cronenberg, David. Focus Features and Kudos Film and Television.

47-              Green Zone. (2010). Directed by:  Green grass, Paul. Universal Studios and Studio Canal.

48-              Harry Brown. (2009). Directed by: Barber, Daniel. Marv Films.

49-              Metropolis. (1927). Directed by: Lang, Fritz. Universum Film AG.

50-              Minority Report. (2002). Directed by: Spielberg, Steven. 20 Century Fox and DreamWorks Pictures.

51-              Once Upon a Time in America. (1984). Directed by: Leone, Sergio. Embassy International Pictures.

52-              On the Waterfront. (1954). Directed by: Kazan, Elia. Columbia Pictures        .

53-              People I Know. (2002). Directed by:  Algrant, Daniel. Miramax Films.          

54-              Taxi Driver. (1976). Directed by: Scorsese, Martin. Columbia Pictures.         

55-              The Dark-Knight. (2008).  Directed by: Nolan, Christopher. Warner Bros Pictures.

56-              The Day After Tomorrow. (2004). Directed by: Emmerich , Roland . 20 Century Fox.

57-              The Hurt Locker. (2008). Directed by: Bigelow, Kathryn. Voltage Pictures.

58-              The Siege. (1999). Directed by: Zwick, Edward. 20 Century Fox.

59-              Wall.E/ Waste Alloction Load Lifter Earth-Class. (2008). Directed By: Stanton, Andrew. Pixar Animation Studios.