عنوان مقاله [English]
The ratio of knowledge and value is one of the most important discussions in Philosophy of Science. In this regard, according to the opinion of most of philosophers social sciences, from a rational point of view, there is no productive relation between propositions related to objective and real phenomena with value and credit propositions and the realities do not contain elements of value and in their essence they are independent of the goals individual, but at the same time, knowledge and objectivity in the external environment and in practice, have a relationship with values and interests. In contrast, followers of critical school believe that a relationship is found between knowledge with interests human so that essentially the existence of objective knowledge is impossible regardless of interests. In this regard, those like Wittfogel and O’Tuathail considered geography and geopolitics as a collection of "knowledge/power" and the ideology of the bourgeois class as well as geography as power generation. In this paper, by presenting various propositions of human and physical geography we showed that ontology, epistemology and methodology of geography are value-free, but at the stage of practice and application, geography can serve the powers and ideologies. Therefore, the claim thinkers of critical schools based on considering knowledge prior to values and interests is due to the mix of "theory and practice" or "meaning and application". And they consider these two as one and therefore believe that knowledge is essentially interwoven with practical and applied goals, and There is no value-free knowledge.