اقتصاد ژئوپلیتیکی منازعه در جنگ ایران و عراق

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

2 دانشیار گروه علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

چکیده

نیروهای عراق در شهریور 1359 به رهبری صدام حسین به خاک ایران یورش آوردند و جنگی که به مدت 8 سال در منطقه درگرفت، مسائل پیچیده و بی‌سابقه اقتصادی، سیاسی و اجتماعی را برای دو کشور به همراه داشت. از منظر استراتژیک، جنگ ایران و عراق  یکی از بدترین جنگ‌های بین دو کشور در قرن بیستم میلادی بود و صرفنظر از همه خسارات مادی، منافع نفتی دو کشور ایران و عراق را که دارنده یک پنجم نفت بودند را بهشدت تهدید کرد. این جنگ در عمل مانع از آن شد که این دو کشور از منافع اقتصادی و سیاسی حاصل از دارایی‌های ارزشمند زیرزمینی خود بهره‌مند شوند و نتوانند در نظام بین‌الملل آنگونه که باید نقشآفرینی کنند. این مقاله نشان می‌دهد ایالات متحده آمریکا و عربستان سعودی پس از آنکه انقلاب اسلامی ایران به پیروزی رسید با حمایت مستقیم و غیرمستقیم از رژیم عراق، کوشیدند تا ضمن حفظ منافع نفتی خود درگیری دو کشور ایران و عراق تداوم بیشتری پیدا کند و در پایان نیز این دو کشور را با جراحات عمیق حاصل از جنگ هشت ساله رها ساختند. مقاله حاضر با روش توصیفی و تحلیلی پسارویدادی و کاربست مفروضات نظریات «اقتصاد سیاسی منازعه» و استفاده از داده‌های مستند و تطبیقی نشان می‌دهد جنگ ایران و عراق در کوتاه مدت خسارات اقتصادی فراوانی به دو کشور وارد کرد و در میان مدت نیز اقتصادسیاسی ایران و عراق را دچار آسیب‌های جبرانناپذیرکرده است. مقاله همچنین بر این نکته تأکید میکند که پیامدهای این جنگ نه فقط دو کشور را از اثربخشی در بازار جهانی نفت محروم ساخت بلکه اقتصاد سیاسی دو کشور را از اقتصاد سیاسی بین‌الملل نیز منزوی کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Iran-Iraq War: Geopolitical Economy of the Conflict

نویسندگان [English]

  • shahrouz shariati 1
  • Masoud Ghaffari 2
1 Assistant Professor of Political Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
2 Associate Professor of Political Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

An almost eight years of war complicated socio-economic and political problems in the region like never before. Strategically, the Iran-Iraq war was one of the worst military encounters of the twentieth century which, apart from others, severely threatened the oil interests of the two countries. In other words, the consequences of the conflict were particularly visible on the political economy as the warring sides, which account for one fifth of the world's oil reserves, failed to achieve their real status in the international arena. As this article intends to show, since the victory of Iran could affect the oil interests of the United States and its hardcore regional ally, Saudi Arabia, they left no stone unturned to take advantage of the conflict with their direct or indirect support to Iraq and then abandoning them with deep wounds. The article by using assumptions such as “Political Economy of Conflict” and collecting documentary data from the Iran-Iraq War shows that while the conflict in the short-term caused huge loss of resources to the two countries, it damaged the Iranian political economy adversely. The study concludes that the war deprived both Iran and Iraq not only of their influence in the global oil markets but smashed up their international political economy in the medium term, as well.                                   

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Iran
  • Iraq
  • war
  • Oil
  • Political Economy

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