تحلیل ژئوپلیتیکی رابطه بین سرمایه‌ی اجتماعی و میزان انتظارات مردم از مسئولین(مطالعه موردی: شهر تهران)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار سیاست‌گذاری عمومی، دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 دانش آموخته کارشناسی‌ارشد علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

3 استادیار علوم تربیتی، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه قم، قم ، ایران

چکیده

  پایتخت با توجه به اهمیتی که در عنصر ساختار سیاسی فضا با کارکرد و هویت سیاسی – اداری داشته و تحولات آن نقش بی­بدیلی در ژئوپلیتیک کشور و منطقه دارد. در حال حاضر سرمایه‌ی اجتماعی به یکی از مهم‌ترین و پرکاربردترین مفاهیم در حوزه مطالعات اجتماعی مبدل گشته است. تحقیقات اقتصادی و جامعهشناسی اخیر نشان می‌دهد که سرمایه‌ اجتماعی بر روی متغیرهای اساسی اقتصادی، سیاسی و اجتماعی نیز اثرگذار است. سرمایه‌ی اجتماعی که دربردارنده ویژگی‌های اساسی سازمان‌های اجتماعی مثل شبکه‌ها، نرم­ها  و اعتماد  می‌باشد همکاری و تعامل بین افراد را برای رسیدن به منافع مشترک افزایش می­دهد. مطالعه‌ی حاضر به بررسی رابطه‌ سرمایه ‌اجتماعی و میزان انتظارات مردم از مسئولین پرداخته است. این تحقیق بر مبنای نظریه سرمایه ‌اجتماعی پاتنام و مدل تحقیقی ­نای(در بررسی رابطه بین اعتماد و میزان انتظارات مردم از مسئولین در آمریکا) انجام شده است. مسئله‌ی اصلی که در این تحقیق به دنبال بررسی آن هستیم این است که افزایش انتظارات مردم از مسئولین چه تأثیری بر میزان سرمایه‌ی ‌اجتماعی آنان دارد. فرضیه اصلی که در این تحقیق به دنبال آزمون آن هستیم این است که در شهر تهران هر اندازه میزان انتظارات مردم از مسئولین افزایش پیدا می‌کند، سرمایه‌ی اجتماعی و هم‌چنین اعتماد آن‌ها به مسؤلین که به تعبیری مهم‌ترین بخش سرمایه‌ی اجتماعی را تشکیل می‌دهد کاهش پیدا می‌کند. این تحقیق با روش پیمایش و با ابزار پرسش‌نامه انجام شده است. جامعه‌ی آماری تحقیق شامل تمامی شهروندان بالای 20 سال است که از طریق نمونه‌گیری تصادفی با طبقه‌بندی متناسب با اندازه انتخاب شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Geopolitical Analysis of the Relationship between Social Capital and the Level of People's Expectations from the Authorities (Case study of Tehran)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Kioomars Ashtarian 1
  • Mohammadreza Amirzadeh 2
  • Hadi Mosaddegh 3
1 Associate Professor, Public Policy, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
2 M.A in Political Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Educational Sciences, University of Qom, Qom, Iran
چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract    
Due to the importance of the capital in the element of political structure of space with its function and political-administrative identity, its developments have an irreplaceable role in the geopolitics of the country and the region. Currently, social capital has become one of the most important and widely used concepts in the field of social studies. Recent economic and sociological research shows that social capital also affects key economic, political, and social variables. The present study examines the relationship between social capital and the level of people's expectations of the authorities. This research is based on Putnam's theory of social capital and the Nina research model. The main issue that we seek to investigate in this study is “what effect the increase in people's expectations of the authorities has on their social capital”. The main hypothesis that we are trying to test in this research is that in the city of Tehran, the more people expect from the authorities, the lower the social capital and their trust in the authorities, which is the most important part of social capital.
The statistical population of the research in the present report includes all citizens over 20 years of age who have been selected through random sampling with size-appropriate classification. The statistical population of the study consists of all people over 20 years old living in Tehran, the sample size is estimated 384 people based on Cochran's formula.
In this study, we seek to examine the relationship between social capital and the level of people's expectations of the authorities. Increasing expectations will have negative consequences for the country if it is not accompanied by an increase in efficiency or is faster than efficiency. Also, the choice of Tehran as a statistical community is due to the importance and impact that the capital of a country could have.
Definitions in the field of social capital are many and varied, while thinkers such as Bourdieu and Coleman focus their approaches on social capital at the level of individuals and families, Putnam examines this concept as a large-scale asset. Bourdieu, for example, emphasizes that social capital is a set of potential or actual resources linked to sustainable network ownership and assets with more or less institutionalized relationships of mutual and mutual acquaintances and awareness. In other words, social capital is formed from social obligations and relationships between members of a group. In the present study, the theoretical framework was selected based on the theories of Putnam and Joseph Nye, which is discussed in detail in the main text of the report. Increasing expectations will have negative consequences for the country if it is not accompanied by an increase in efficiency or is faster than efficiency. This effect is so significant that Alexei Dotokuil points to the rise in expectations of the French Revolution, arguing that the rise in expectations of the French people, although accompanied by a relative increase in welfare, was due to the fact that it was faster than the growth of welfare in society. It led to a revolution in the country. The unreasonable increase of expectations in the society has very bad consequences to the extent that it can question the legitimacy of the system and undermine the people's trust in the authorities. If such a thing happens, even the positive actions of the authorities will not be seen by the people, and other crises will be created, especially the crisis of legitimacy in the society. Expectations are also more concerned with the psychological and mental dimension of human beings, which has a direct effect on it and then can have indirect and practical consequences in society.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Social Capital
  • Participation
  • norm
  • political expectations
  • Economic expectations
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Vilanova; Josa (2003). Department of Industrial Engineering and Management. Tamper University of Technology