عنوان مقاله [English]
Groundwater resources are considered as the second largest freshwater source in the world. The continuous decline of groundwater levels to meet the needs of agriculture, drinking and industry has caused numerous problems in different parts of the world in the second half of the last century. Accordingly, shared transboundary aquifers are taken into account as important water supply resources, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. So far, valuable experiences have been made on transboundary rivers in different levels, but despite more than a decade of technical and political attention at the highest international levels to transboundary aquifers, little progress has been made in developing and implementing agreements in this area. The scientific knowledge of about 600 transboundary aquifers in almost every country is very weak so that the identification of contaminated basins, the study of their pollution levels and the probability of their drying is limited to only expert's judgment. This article reviews a number of global agreements in the continents of Europe, Africa, and America and examines the experiences of each of them. Finally, based on the strengths and weaknesses of those agreements, a framework for the development of cooperation and the formulation of practical agreements is presented.